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Full text of "The baronial halls, and ancient picturesque edifices of England. From drawings by J.D. Harding, G. Cattermole, S. Prout, W. M"

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VOL. I. 






V ' 





































MIDDLESEX From a Drawing by 










C. J. Richardson, F.ti.A. 
C. J. Richardson, F.S.A. 
J. D. Harding. 
T. Allom. 
F. W. Hit/me. 
J. D. Harding. 
T. Allom. 
J. C. Jia//lifs. 
F. W. Hiilme. 
C. J. Richardson, F.X.A 
11. L. Pratt. 
J. A. Hammerslei/. 
A. E. Everitt. 
W. L. Walton. 
F. W. Hulme. 
J. D. Hurtling. 
C. J. Rkliardson, F.S.A. 
W. Milder. 
Henri/ Mogford. 
F. W. Halm,: 
Kamuel 1'rout. 
S. Front. 
A. . Everitt. 
George Catlermole. 
J. G. Jackson, 
J. G. Jackson. 
J. G. Jitcksoii. 
J. D. Harding. 
J. G. Jticksott. 
F. W. Hulme. 

F. W. Hulme. 

G. J. Richardson, F.X.A. 
0. J. Richardson, F.X.A. 
F. W.Fairhvlt.F.S.A. 
William RicJumlsoit. 
William Richardson. 



Wi I'l'i'-iTl r: 



OLLAND HOUSE stands upon rising ground, a little to the north of the 
high-road which leads from Kensington to Hammersmith.* It is in- 
teresting to all passers-by, as affording a correct idea of the baronial 
mansions peculiar to the age of James I. ; and, from its vicinity to 
the metropolis, its examination is easy to thousands who rarely obtain 
opportunities of viewing the " old houses," with which are associated 
the records and pictures of English hospitality as it existed in the 
olden time. Although modern dwellings of all shapes and sizes have grown up about it, 
the house retains so much of its primitive character its green meadows, sloping lanes, and 
umbrageous woods, in which still sings the nightingale ; with gables and chimneys bear- 
ing tokens of a date two centuries back that few traverse the highway without a word 
of comment, and a sensation of pleasure, that neither time nor caprice have yet operated 

* Holland House is the manor-house of Abbots Kensing- 
ton. " In Domesday Book (our extract is from Lysons) the 
place is called Chenisitun, in other ancient records Kenesitune 
and Kensintune. Chenesi is a proper name; a person so 
named held the manor of Huish in Somersetshire, in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor. Kensington manor, which 
had been the property of Edward, a thane of King Edward's, 
was granted by the Conqueror to Geoffrey, bishop of Con- 
stance, Chief Justiciary of England, under whom it was 
holden (when the survey of Domesday was taken) by Alberic 
or Aubrey de Vere, ancestor of the Earls of Oxford. The 
manor," says the Survey, " is taxed at 10 hides, and contains 
10 caracutes; on the demesnes are four ploughs, the villans 
have five, and might employ six. There are 12 villans, 
holding each a virgate, and 6 who hold 3 virgates jointly. 
The priest has half a virgate, and there are seven slaves, 
meadow equal to two plough lands, pasture for the cattle of 
the town, pannage for 200 hogs and three acres of vineyards, 
valued altogether at 101. in King Edward's time at the same. 
The manor was afterwards the absolute property of the Vere 
family, and was held by them in capite for several generations, 
being parcel of their barony by virtue of their office of High 
Chamberlain. [In 1264, on the death of Hugh de Vere, the 

demesne was valued at 4d. an acre, and the meadow-land at 
3d. ; a dovehouse at 3s., a court and vineyard 3s., fishpond 
and moat 2s. In 1296 the whole value of the manor was 
19?. 13s. 6irf. In 1331 it was somewhat less.] Aubrey de 
Vere, grand justiciary of England, was created Earl of Ox- 
ford by the Empress Maud, and afterwards confirmed in that 
title by Henry II. Upon the attainder of John, the twelfth 
earl, who was beheaded in 1461 for his adherence to the 
house of Lancaster, the manor was seized by the crown and 
given to Richard, duke of Gloucester. It came afterwards 
into the hands of William, marquis of Berkley, who gave it 
to Sir Reginald Bray. John, earl of Oxford, son of the at- 
tainted earl, having been restored to his honours, recovered 
(probably by purchase) the ancient inheritance of his ances- 
tors, and by his will, bearing date 1509, left it to John, his 
nephew, the next heir to the title. Subsequently it passed to 
Sir Walter Cope, and from him to Henry Rich, earl of Hol- 
land, to whose descendant maternally, Lord Kensington, it 
now belongs. In 1776 the only surviving son of Francis 
Edwardes, Esq., who married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Rich, earl of Warwick and Holland, was created an Irish peer 
by the title of Baron Kensington." 


to remove it from its place, or even to impair its imposing and impressive features. It is 
almost alone in its old grandeur," in a vicinity at one period crowded with ancient houses ; 
the baronial halls have, with this exception, that of Campden House,* adjacent, and Ken- 
sington Palace, a comparatively recent structure, heen removed, to make way for detached 
vilfas" and streets of narrow dwellings; and there are many sad surmises that, ere long, the 
park, and gardens, and venerable mansion, will he also displaced, to supply building-ground 
for speculators in brick and mortar. This will be a grievous outrage on taste, and a sore 
mortification to the antiquary, and be another terrible inroad on the picturesque in a district 
which, within living memory, was as primitive in character as if London had been distant a 

hundred miles. 

The approach to Holland House is by an avenue of venerable elms ; the entrance-gates 
are examples of wrought iron, remarkably elegant in design and fine in execution. Within 
the demesne, small although it be, all sense is lost of proximity to a great city : the close 
foliage completely shuts out the view of surrounding houses, and the birds are singing among 
the branches, as if enjoying the freedom of the forest. Yet Holland House is now enclosed 
on all sides north, south, east, and west by brick houses of all sorts and sizes, upon 
which it seems to look down, from its elevated position, with supreme contempt for the 

convenient " whimsies " of modern architects. 

Before we conduct the reader about the grounds and into the mansion, it will be well to 
give some history of the several personages through whose hands they have passed. As we 
have shewn in a note, the manor, during the reign of Elizabeth, became the property of 
Sir Walter Cope, a knight who became high in favour with her successor, James I., and who 
obtained, partly by grant and partly by purchase, considerable possessions in and around 
Kensington. By him the house, subsequently called " Holland House," was built. His 
daughter, Isabella, having married Sir Henry Rich, the second son of Robert Rich, first 
Earl of Warwick, this Sir Robert inherited the estates in right of his wife; in 1622 he was 
created Baron Kensington ; and in the 22d James I. was elevated to the dignity of Earl of 
Holland, and installed a Knight of the Garter. Having taken part with the king during 
the civil wars, he was tried by the Parliament, condemned to death, and beheaded on the 9th 
of March, 1649-t His lady was, however, permitted to return to Holland House, where 

* Campden House, now a ladies' school, was built about 
the year 1612, by Sir Baptist Hickes, an eminent citizen of 
London, afterwards Viscount Campden. In 1691, it was the 
residence of Anne, then Princess of Denmark, who lived here 
for about four years with her son, the Duke of Gloucester, 
who, unhappily, died at the age of eleven years. Here, it is 
said, a regiment of boys about his own age was formed for 
his amusement, " with whom he sported in military evolu- 
tions." The house has undergone many alterations, but 
retains many of its original features. The palace of Ken- 
sington was chiefly built by William III., but " considerably 


enlarged and altered by succeeding monarchs." Until his 
death, it was the residence of his late Royal Highness the 
Duke of Sussex. 

t Clarendon, in his " History of the Rebellion," has drawn 
the character of this peer : " He was a very handsome man, 
of a lovely and winning presence, and genteel conversation, 
by which he got so easy an admission into the Court of King 
James," that he abandoned the life he had previously led 
that of a soldier. The favour of James was continued to him 
by his successor, Charles I.; and "whilst the weather was 
fair, he continued to flourish above any man about the court ; 


she brought up her family, and where she was succeeded by her son, Robert, the second 
earl, who, in 1673, became also Earl of Warwick, by the death of Charles, the fourth earl. 
He was succeeded by his son, the third earl, who married Charlotte, only daughter of 
Sir Thomas Middleton of Chirk Castle, Denbighshire, who survived, and subsequently took 
for her second husband, in 1716, the renowned Joseph Addison; "but," writes Dr. Johnson, 
" Holland House, although a large house, could not contain Mr. Addison, the Countess of 
Warwick, and one guest Peace:" they lived on ill terms, which probably hastened the 
death of Addison; an event which took place in the mansion on the 17th of June, 1719.* 
Edward Henry, the fourth Earl of Holland, dying unmarried, his cousin, Edward, succeeded 
as fifth earl ; but he dying without issue, in 1759, his honours and titles became extinct ; 
but the family estates were inherited by William Edwardes, Esq., son of the sister of Edward, 
the third earl, created Baron Kensington of the kingdom of Ireland in 1776. Holland 
House came into the possession of the family to whom it now belongs (the family of Fox), 
first about the year 1762, when the Right Hon. Henry Fox, Secretary of State (soon 
afterwards created Lord Holland), became a tenant of the mansion, which he subsequently- 
purchased, together with the manor, from Mr. Edwardes. Here the first Lord Holland 
resided until his death in 1774, and was succeeded by his son, Stephen, the second peer.t 
who died the year following, and was succeeded by his son, Richard Vassal ; during whose 
long minority the house was let to the Earl of Roseberry and Mr. Bearcroft. On his death 
in 1840, he was succeeded by the present peer, Henry Edward Fox, the fourth Lord Holland. 
During the lifetime of the late peer, Holland House obtained a certain degree of fame as 
the occasional rendezvous of the wits of the age ; and the fetes at which they were assembled 
furnished brilliant themes for the exercise of poetical talent ; but the records of genius 

but the storm did no sooner arise, but he changed so much, I and finely accomplished (the young Earl of Warwick), yet 
and declined so last from the honour he was thought to be j not above being the better for good impressions from a dying 
master of," that he grew distrusted by the two State parties, I friend. He came, but life now glimmering in the socket, the 

and alternately deserted and betrayed both. Ultimately, 
however, he took part with the king, was taken prisoner at a 
skirmish near Kingston, tried, and sentenced to death : " the 
house being divided upon the question, whether he should be 
reprieved or not, and the Speaker giving the casting vote 
against him." "Thus," says Lord Orford, "perished the once 
gay, beautiful, and gallant Earl of Holland, whom neither 
the honours showered upon him by his prince, nor his former 
more tender connexion with the queen, could preserve from 
betraying and engaging against both. On the scaffold he 
appeared sunk beneath the indignation and cruelty he received 
from men, to whom and from whom he had deserted." 

* The death of Addison is thus touchingly described by 
Dr. Young: "After a long and manly, but vain struggle, 
with his distemper, he dismissed his physicians, and with them 
all hopes of life ; but with his hopes of life, he dismissed not 
his concern for the living, but sent for a youth nearly related, 

dying friend was silent : after a decent and proper pause, the 
youth said, ' Dear sir, you sent for me ; I believe and I hope 
that you have some commands; I shall hold them most 
sacred.' Forcibly grasping the youth's hand, he softly said, 
' See in what peace a Christian can die.' He spoke with diffi- 
culty, and soon expired." Dr. Johnson states that "Addison 
had been tutor to the young Earl, and anxiously, but in vain, 
endeavoured to check the licentiousness of his manners. As 
a last effort, he requested him to come into his room when he 
lay at the point of death, hoping that the solemnity of the 
scene might work upon his feelings. When his pupil came 
to receive his last commands, he told him that he had sent for 
him to see how a Christian could die." 

f The second son of the first, and brother of the second, 
Lord Holland, was Charles James Fox, much of whose early 
life was passed at Holland House. 


there fostered and encouraged are singularly few. The historian, the poet, the artist, and 
the man of science, became guests in the mansion when they had acquired fame, but those 
who were achieving greatness, and stood in need of "patronage," were not permitted to share 
its enjoyments and advantages. 

The grounds and gardens of Holland House have been skilfully and tastefully laid out ; 
the trees are remarkably fine, and give a character of delicious solitude to the place, keeping 
away all thought of the vast city, the distant hum of which is at all times audible ; and, 
although "prospects fresh and fair" are in a great degree shut out, imagination may easily 
follow the steps of Addison into this calm retreat, and quote the lines of Tickell on the poet's 
death, as applicable to the present day as they were to a century back : 

" Thou hill, whose brow the antique structures grace, 
Rear'd by bold chiefs of Warwick's noble race ; 
Why, scene so lov'd ! where'er thy bower appears, 
O'er my dim eyeballs glance the sudden tears ? 
How sweet were once thy prospects fresh and fair, 
Thy sloping walks, and unpolluted air ! 
How sweet the gloom beneath thy aged trees, 
. Thy noontide shadow, and thy evening breeze ; 
His image thy forsaken bowers restore, 
Thy walks and airy prospects charm no more. 
No more the summer in thy glooms allay' d, 
Thy evening breezes and thy noon-day shade !" 

The prospect, however, notwithstanding the multiplicity of houses by which the grounds 
are surrounded, is not all destroyed ; vistas are here and there formed between the trees, 
which command extensive views ; and garden - seats still exist, to wile the visitor into 
"shady places," where the hill of Harrow and other striking objects are seen in the dis- 
tance, while the surrounding shadow enhances the value of the bright scene beyond : 

" For loftie trees, y'clad with summer's pride, 
Did spread so broad, that heaven's light did hide, 

Not pierceable with power of any starre ; 
And all within are paths and alleies wide, 

With footinge worne, and leading inward farre." 

But judgment, tastefully exercised, has made many openings among those thick woods ; 
and those who wander among them enjoy the feelings of entire solitude a feeling augmented 
if the time be evening ; for, as we have intimated, although scarcely two miles distant from 
the heart of London, here the nightingale 

" Supplies the night with mournful strains, 
And melancholy music fills the plains." 


The beautiful gates which open upon the avenue that leads to the principal entrance to the 
mansion are pictured in the appended woodcut ; they were brought from Belgium by the late 
Lord Holland, and placed 
in their present position 
about twelve years ago ; 
they are of wrought iron, 
and are considerably im- 
paired by time. Recently 
they have been repainted, 
and picked out with gold ; 
and they now make a gay 
appearance ; they are, how- 
ever, of a much later date 
than the venerable struc- 
ture, with which they would 
be out of "keeping," but 
that they are separated from 
it by considerable space 
a long avenue of ancient 
and finely grown elm-trees, 
which shadow the broad 
path- that conducts to the 
house. The immediate en- 
trance is between two piers 
of Portland stone, designed 

by Inigo Jones, and "executed by Nicholas Stone in 1629, for which he was paid 100/. ;" 
they have no peculiar merit, but serve the purpose of supporting "the arms of Rich 
quartering Bouldry, and impaling Cope." The pleasure-grounds are behind the house, 
"falling abruptly to the north-east:" they were laid out by Mr. Hamilton in 1769. Scattered 
in various parts are memorials to some of the personal friends of the late Lord Holland : 
among others, the author of " The Pleasures of Memory" is honoured by this poor couplet : 

" Here Rogers sat, and here for ever dwell 
To me those pleasures that he sings so well." 

Some lines, scarcely better, have been appended by Henry Luttrell, Esq. ; but the genius 
of the place has essayed a flight no higher than that which might grace a school-girl's album. 
Nature has done more for the domain than art ; from various points, fine views are obtained 
of the country that surrounds London ; and although, of late years, they have been sadly 
narrowed by "endless piles of brick," when Tickell wrote his lines on the death of Addison, 
no doubt they were " Fresh and Fair." 



Considerable alterations internally were made to the building by Inigo Jones. The 
entrance-hall, the two staircases, and the parlour leading out of the principal staircase, are 
the only parts of the mansion on the ground-floor that still retain their original character. On 
the first floor, beside the Gilt Room, is a noble long gallery, now the library, and the late 
Lady Holland's drawing-room or boudoir. All these rooms preserve their ancient decorations, 
and are in the purest taste and the most costly style of execution. 

" The Gilt Room," which forms the subject of the appended print, is approached from 
the entrance-hall by a richly ornamented oak staircase. From the style of the details it 
would appear that it was the work of John Thorpe, and that the painted decorations were the 
produce of Francis (or Francesco) Cleyn, a favourite artist of the time, who was employed 
largely by the kings James I. and Charles I., from whom he derived an annuity of 100L, 
settled on him during his natural life, and which he enjoyed till the Civil War. The 
ceiling of the room was originally painted by him in the same style as the other portions of 
the apartment ; being out of repair during the minority of his late lordship, it was removed, 
and a plain one put up in its stead. In the view here given, Mr. Richardson has supplied it 
from such fragments and sketches as were obtainable several years ago. 

Notwithstanding the loss of its painted ceiling, the room 
presents an appearance of elaborate magnificence, and of unique 
singularity carrying us back at once to that luxurious period, 
the early part of the reign of Charles I. The paintings, the 
figures over the fireplaces, deserve great praise, although we 
cannot entirely coincide with Horace Walpole, who declares (in 
his life of Cleyn) that they are not unworthy of Parmigiano. 
The paintings such as remain over the fireplaces and soffites 
of the arches certainly are masterly, though the architect 
might discover a little of the " contract style " about them. 
Cleyn was employed by Charles I., whose good taste led him to 
patronise only the most eminent men in art. The painter was 
denominated " II famosissimo pittore Francesco Cleyn, miracolo 
del secolo, e molto stimato del Re Carlo della Gran Britania."* 
This cut represents some of Cleyn's painting in the soffite 
of one of the arches in the gilt-room ; it is roughly painted 
although in a free and masterly style in umber, on a white 
ground ; the drapery, dress, and hair of the figures, are gilt. 

* Francis Cleyn was born at Kostock, and was originally 
in the service of Christian IV. of Denmark. For a proper 
education in art he visited Italy, and there became known to 
Sir Henry Wotton, by whom he was introduced to Prince 
Charles, afterwards Charles I. Soon after his arrival in 

England he was employed to give designs, " both in history 
and grotesque," for the tapestry manufacture then recently 
established at Mortlock. At Somerset House he painted a 
ceiling of a room near the gallery, with histories and com- 
partments in gold ; the entrance of Wimbledon House he 


The decorative panelling of the Gilt Room is continued round the four sides, and in the 
large recess in the centre (immediately above the entrance-porch) ; the interior of each 
panel has a small raised fillet, about an eighth of an inch in thickness, forming an orna- 
mental border : this is gilt. In the centre of the panels are painted alternately cross- 
crosslets and fleur-de-lis, charges in the arms of Cope and Rich ; they are surmounted 
by an earl's coronet, with palm or oak branches, in gold, shaded with bistre. The figures 
over the fireplaces have the flesh painted, the rest is gold shaded ; the lower columns 
of the fireplaces are painted black, the upper being of Sienna marble : both have gilt 
ornaments at the lower part of the shaft, and their caps and bases gilt : for the rest, all the 
prominent mouldings, the flutes, caps, and bases of the pilasters are gilt ; the cima recta 
of the great entablature has a painted leaf enrichment, with acorns between, the latter 
of which are gilt. The groundwork of the whole is white. The busts in the room 
were placed there by his late lordship : over the fireplaces are those of King William the 
Fourth, and George the Fourth when Prince Regent. Arranged 
on pedestals round the room are busts of the late Lord Holland, 
Francis Duke of Bedford, Henry first Lord Holland, the late 
Duke of Sussex, John Hookham Frere, the Duke of Cumberland 
(of Culloden), Napoleon, Henry the Fourth of France, the Right 
Hon. Charles James Fox, by Nollekens, a duplicate made for the 
Empress Catharine of Russia. In the bow-recess are models of 
Henry Earl of Pembroke, and Thomas Winnington, Esq. The 
painted shields in the corner of the room bear the arms of Rich of 
Warwick, and Cope and Rich. Of the ancient furniture of the 

Gilt Room two chairs alone remain ; 
these are mentioned by Horace Wai- 
pole as being the work of Francesco 
Cleyn : they are painted white, and 
partly gilt. A large bench, formed 
by three of these chairs placed toge- 
ther, with one arm only at each end, 
was discovered by the artist some 
years ago, in a lumber-place over 
the stable, where, probably, it still 
remains. The Gilt Room, during the lifetime of his late lordship, was used as the state 

painted in fresco ; Bolsover in Nottinghamshire, Stone Park in 
Northamptonshire^ and Carew House at Parson's Green, were 
ornamented hy him. He also executed several books for 
carvers, goldsmiths, &c., "made designs for various artists," 


and was the master of Dobson. His two sons also were 
esteemed painters. He died in London " a most pious man," 
according to Evelyn in 1658. 


dining-room : the state drawing-room, lined with silk, and hung with paintings, led out of 

it by the door on the right seen in the print. Parallel to these rooms, at the back of the 

building, is another line of drawing-rooms, modernised, but which 
contain a valuable collection of paintings. Among them is a cele- 
brated one by Hogarth the amateur performance, by children of 
the nobility, of " The Beggar's Opera." This painting is very large : 
the whole of the figures are portraits. Another painting by Hogarth 
is in the collection, which has never been engraved. It is a view of 
the entrance to Ranelagh Gardens, Chelsea. The collection con- 
tains a few very fine Sir Joshua's. Among them is his portrait of 
Joseph Baretti, well known from the engraving. There are likewise 
a few first-rate pictures of the old masters. The library contains a 
series of portraits of political and literary friends of his late lordship ; 
and, in the boudoir, are the series of the late J. Stothard's most 
exquisite compositions to illustrate Moore's poems. These drawings 
are very highly finished, and are twice the size of the engravings 
which were made from them. 

In "Lady Holland's Boudoir," among other curiosities, are two 
candlesticks formerly belonging to Mary Queen of Scots ; they are 

of brass, each of eleven and a half inches in 

height. They are of French manufacture ; the 

sunk parts are filled up with an inlay of blue, 

green, and white enamel, very similar to that 

done at Limoge. These candlesticks are ex- 
tremely elegant ; one of them is represented in 

the above woodcut. 

The accompanying woodcut represents the 

fireplace in " the ancient parlour ;" leaving the 

principal staircase in the ground floor ; the door 

on the left leads into this room. It is supposed 

to have been* painted in a snpilar style to the 

great chamber above-stairs. Th5 fireplace in 

this room is of the most excellent cjesign and 

capital execution. A portion of the framing 

of the room is shewn by the side of the\ fire- 
place: this is likewise very elegant. One of 

the ancient windows of this apartment is blockedf 

up, and an ornamental arch placed in front of it- by Inigo Jones. It was in this room that 


plays were performed by the direction of the first Lady Holland, when the theatres in 
London were shut up by the Puritans : it is commonly called " The Theatre Room."* 

The other rooms will require but a brief notice. "The Journal Room" is so named 
because a complete set of the journals of the Houses of Lords and Commons are there 
preserved: it contains several portraits, among which are three or four by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. This is on the ground-floor. Underneath the hall is the ancient kitchen, not 
long ago fitted up as a servants' hall. In the north-east wing is a large apartment, formerly 
the chapel of the mansion : it has been disused for half a century, having been converted 
into a bath-room. 

The Libraries are spacious and " well stocked ;" the principal, which forms the west 
wing of the house, is styled the Long Gallery ; it is, in length, one hundred and two feet, 
and, in breadth, seventeen feet four inches. According to Mr. Faulkner (" History of 
Kensington"), whose account was written under the superintendence of the late Lord Holland, 
in the year 1746, this fine apartment was entirely out of repair, and even "unfloored:" it 
was, however, at that period completely restored, and converted from its ancient use, as the 
gallery for exercise, into a receptacle for books, of which it contains a rare selection. The 
first Lord Holland had fitted it up for pictures ; blocking up many of the windows, and 
opening in lieu of them a large bow-window on the west side. The "West Library" and 
the "East Library" two rooms of moderate extent contain also several valuable folios 
curious treasures of antiquity. Mr. Faulkner enumerates some of the more remarkable of 
the contents of the eastern library, which cannot fail to interest the reader : - 

" A curious copy of Camoens, to which the praises of Mr. De Souza, the patriotic editor of the late splendid 
edition of that poet, have given extraordinary celebrity. It is a copy of one of the earliest editions, and 
Mr. De Souza alleges that it must have been in the hands of the poet himself. At the bottom of the title- 
page the following curious and melancholy testimony of his unfortunate death is written in an old Spanish 
hand, which states that the writer saw him die in an hospital at Lisbon, without even a blanket to cover him. 

" ' Que coza mas lastimosa que ver un tan grande ingenio mal logrado ! yo lo bi morir en un hospital en Lisbon, 
sin tener una sauana con que cubrirse, despues de aver triunfado en la India oriental, y de aver navigado 5500 
leguas por mar : que auiso tan grande para los que de noche y de dia se canqan estudiando sin provecho, como la 
arana en urdir fellas para cazar moscas!' 

" Specimens of all the types in the Vatican Library, printed in the Propaganda press, A.D. 1640, on silk. 

" The music of the ' Olimpiade/ an opera of Metastasio, well authenticated to have been transcribed by 
J. J. Rousseau, when that extraordinary man procured his livelihood by copies of this kind. The hand-writing 
is so beautiful that it resembles copper-plate engraving. 

" Four volumes of MS. Plays of Lope de Vega, the first containing three plays in his own hand-writing, 
with the original license of the censor. 


Whilst mentioning the drama as connected with Hol- 
land House, it is worthy of notice that the tragedy of " Jane 
Shore" was acted there in the "late Lord Holland's time" 
(Dodsley's " Old Plays," vol. xii. p. 345). The late Mr. Fox 

supported the character of Lord Hastings ; his brother, the 
General, was Bishop of Ely; Lady Sarah Bunbury, Jane 
Shore ; and Lady Susan O'Brien, Alicia. 


" The original copy, in MS., of the ' Mogigata/ a favourite play of the celebrated Moratin, the first writer 
of Spanish comedy now living, but who has been proscribed and exiled by Ferdinand the Seventh. 

"There are several others of nearly equal interest, and among the MSS. there are many curious autographs 
of Philip the Second, Prince Eugene, Pontanus, Sannazarius, and others, and three original letters of Petrarch. 

"Also a voluminous MS. collection of the proceedings in Cortes, from the earliest period, copied from the 
archives of the King of Spain. The original correspondence of Don Pedro Eonquillo, the Spanish ambassador, 
resident in London at the time of our Revolution ; part in cypher, with the translation by the side, with several 
others of equal value and curiosity." 

The Long Gallery is ornamented with portraits of the Lenox, Digby, and Fox families ; 
Dryden and Addison ; Sir C. H. Williams ; Admiral Lestock ; Sir Robert Walpole ; the 
Right Honourable Thomas Winnington ; Cardinal Fleury, by Rigaud ; and Van Lintz, by 
himself. Scattered throughout the apartments are King Charles II. and the Duchess of 
Portsmouth ; Sir Stephen Fox, by Sir Peter Lely ; Henry, Lord Holland ; Stephen, Lord 
Holland, by Zoffany ; the late Right Honourable C. J. Fox, when an infant; when a boy, 
in a group with Lady Susan Strangeways and Lady Mary Lenox (by Sir Joshua Reynolds) ; 
and a fine picture of him in more advanced life by the same artist. There are two busts, 
also, of him, by Nollekens, one of which was taken not long before his death ; and a statue, 
seated in the entrance-hall. 

We may not take leave of this fine old mansion without expressing a fervent hope that 
the interesting work of two centuries may endure for many centuries to come ; that modern 
improvements although they may place the suburb of which it is the crowning gem in 
the centre of the Metropolis will not displace it to make room for petty structures of a 
day, but that the tale of the Olden Time may be there told to our descendants as it has 
been there told to our ancestors. 



OURNEYING a dozen miles north of the city of Norwich, the 
Tourist reaches the old town of Aylsham. A mile hence 
is the very ancient manor of Blickling* famous so far 
hack as the time of the Confessor, when it was in the 
possession of Harold, King of England ; remarkable, in after 
times, when occupied by the Bishops of the See, and cele- 
brated, in the history of various epochs, as a seat of the 
noble families of Dagworth, Erpingham, Fastolff, Boleyne, 
Clere, and Hobart. From this ancient house, Henry VIII. 
married the unfortunate mother of Queen Elizabeth ; here 
the virgin queen herself is said to have been a guest, and 

here Charles II. and his consort were visitors events referred to by the court-poet, 

Stephenson : 

" Blickling 2 monarchs and 2 queens has seen ; 
One king fetch'd thence, another brought, a queen." 

The mansion Blickling Hall is one of the most perfect examples remaining of the time 
of James I. ; the exterior has undergone few changes ; the bridge, the moat, the turrets, 
the curiously-formed gables, and the double row of spacious and convenient out-offices 
connected with the mansion by an arcade arc characteristic of the period, while 
elaborate finish and costly ornament indicate the wealth and rank of its noble owners. 
The high-road passes the gates, and runs within a few yards of the house ; a small green 
sward only separating it from the public pathway. The moat is crossed by a Bridge of 
remarkably light and graceful proportions ; on either side of this bridge are Pedestals with 
bulls (the heraldic crest of the Hobarjs) bearing blank shields. The entrance-porch is 
exceedingly beautiful ; the design is simple and elegant ; "it may be regarded," according 
to Mr. Shaw, " as one of the earliest attempts at the restoration of classical architecture, 

" The name Blickling," according to Blomefield, "seems to signifie the low meadows at the Beck." 


and appears to be formed upon the model of the Arch of Titus at Rome." In the 
spandrels are sculptured figures of Victory. Over the entablature, supported by two 
Doric columns, is an enriched compartment, bearing the arms and quarterings of Sir 


Henry Hobart, Bart, (by whom the stately mansion was erected). A massive Oak Door 
contains the date 1620 ; the knocker of this door is peculiarly quaint ; a copy of it acts 
as the initial letter commencing this description. Passing a small quadrangular court, 
we enter the Hall, from which opens the grand Staircase of Oak, the newels of which are 
crowned with figures. Unhappily, the oak has been covered with paint ; and time 
having removed some of the figures, their places have been supplied by others out of 
harmony with the character of the venerable structure.* Of the several apartments, the 
only one that demands particular notice is the Library a noble room, filled with the 
rarest and most valuable books. It measures one hundred and twenty-seven feet ; 
the ceiling is a magnificent collection of works of art, unsurpassed by anything of the 
kind in Great Britain. It consists of a series of models, representing the Senses, the 
Passions and the Elements, in low relief comprising a very large number of subjects, 
no two of which are alike. The library is as a private collection extensive ; the 
books it contains are generally " large paper copies," and in the finest possible state. 
Some of its treasures are unique here are a volume of Saxon Homilies, and a Latin 
MS. of the Psalter, certainly as ancient as anything we possess in the Latin tongue, 
and several others, with and without illuminations, of very remote dates. Here also are 
two copies (imperfect) of the Covcrdale Bible ; an uncut copy of the diminutive Sedan 
Xew Testament, and a vast assemblage of the choicest productions of the early English 
press. It was formed by Maittaire for Sir Richard Ellys, Bart., of Norton, in Lincolnshire, 
to whom he dedicated his "Anacreon," in 1725. The curiosities of the library Avere 
shown to us by the Rev. James Bulwer, whose own family seat of Heydon is in 
the neighbourhood of Blickling Hall. 

Mr. Harding's print of this fine old mansion affords an accurate idea of its elegance 
and grandeur. Its form is quadrangular having a square turret at each angle. Viewed 
from any point it is highly picturesque. The Park, which surrounds it on three sides, 
contains above 1000 acres. Its trees are celebrated for their exceeding beauty and 

* Among these odd substitutes for ancient heroes, are carved 
copies of foot-soldiers of the time of George III. It would 
seem as if the Earl of Buckingham writing in 1765 had 
actually contemplated the " improvements " indicated in the 
following letter. "I have," he writes, "determined what to 
do with the Hall. Some tributary sorrow should, however, 
be paid to the nine Worthies-but Hector has lost his spear 
and his nose; David his harp ; Godfrey of Boulogne his ears; 
Alexander the Great his highest shoulder; and part of Joshua 
has fallen in. As the ceiling is to be raised, eight of them 

must have gone ; and Hector is at all events determined to 
leave his niche. You will forgive my replacing them with 
eight worthies of my own times, whose figures are not yet 
essentially mutilated, viz., Dr. Shebbeare, Mr. Wilkes, Dr. 
Hill, Mr. Glover, Mr. Deputy Hodges, Mr. Whitfield, Justice 
Fielding, and Mr. Foote ; and as Anne Boleyn was born at 
Blickling, it will not be improper to purchase her father 
Henry, the eighth figure (which by order is no longer to be 
exhibited in the Tower), who will fill with credit the space 
occupied by the falling Hector." 


prodigious growth. A remarkably fine piece of water, shaped like a crescent, adjoins 
the house, extending nearly a mile in length. Nature and Art have both contributed 
to adorn this artificial Lake; gentle acclivities rise from its sides, here and there 
fringed with evergreens infinitely varied, while gigantic oaks, and elms, and beeches, 
rising at intervals, seem the guardians of its banks. 

We may sum up our account of Blickling Hall in the words of old Blomeficld : 
" The building is a curious brick fabric, four-square, with a turret at each corner ; there 
are two good Courts, with a fine Library, elegant Wilderness, good Lake, Gardens, and 
Park ; it is a pleasant, beautiful seat, worthy the observation of such as make the 
Norfolk Tour." 

The erection of the existing structure was commenced by Sir Henry Hobart, Bart., 
during the reign of James the First, but was not finished until the year 1628, when 
" the Domestic Chapel was consecrated." The building, however, retained its original 
character, varying very little, in external appearance and internal arrangements, from 
the old Mansion in which Queen Anne Boleyne was born, and which had been famous 
for centuries. 

When the Domesday Survey was made, one part of the Manor belonged to Beausoc, 
Bishop of Thetford (the seat of the See until 1088), the other part being in possession of 
the Crown. Both moieties were invested with the privileges of ancient demesne, were 
exempt from the hundred (of South Erpingham) and had the lete with all royalties. 
Having successively passed through the hands of many distinguished families, in 1131 
it was the property of Sir Thomas De Erpingham, by whom it was sold to Sir John 
Fastolff, who, about the year 1152, sold it to Sir Geoffrey Boleyne, Knt., who Avas Lord 
Mayor of London in 1458, and who made Blickling his country-seat. From him inherited 
his second son, Sir William Boleyne, Knight, 
who married Margaret, sister of James But- 
ler, Earl of Ormond ; dying in 1505, he was 
succeeded by his son, Sir Thomas Boleyne, 
who, the 18th of Henry VIII., was raised to 
the peerage by the title of Viscount Roch- 
ford, and three years afterwards was created 
Earl of Wiltshire. His daughter, Anne, was 
privately married to Henry VIII., on the 
5th of January, 1533. On the 19th of May, 
1530, she was beheaded ; her dismal fate 
having been shared by her brother, Viscount 

Rochford; and the old Earl died in 1538 it is believed of a broken heart. Soon 
afterwards the estate of Blickling, having been for a short time in the family of the 



Cleres, was purchased by Sir Harry Hobart, Bart., " a fortunate lawyer," who became 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. He was succeeded by his son and grandson, 

the second and third Baronets; the fourth 
Baronet was created, by George II., Lord 
Hobart of Blickling, in 1728 ; and in 1746, 
Earl of Buckinghamshire. His son, the 
second Earl, died without male issue, but 
left four daughters, one of whom married 
the late Marquis of Londonderry, another 
William Lord Suffield, the third Lord Mount 
Edgcombe, and a fourth the Marquis of 
Lothian, whose surviving son, the fifth Mar- 
quis, died at Blickling in 1841, leaving a son, 
an infant, who is heir -apparent to the 
estate, now in the possession of his great aunt, the Dowager Lady Sufneld. 

The venerable Church of Blickling adjoins the mansion. It is built in the style of 
nearly all the Norfolk Churches of flint, a material that essentially impairs the solemn 
dignity of the structure. Many of the Brasses and Tombs are of high interest ; the one 
of which we append an engraving (on the preceding page) is to the memory of Edward 
Clere. It is described by Blomefield as " a most curious Altar Tomb, placed between 
the Chancel and Boleyne's Chapel. The Effigy which 
laid upon it is now gone ; but there remain the Arms and 
Matches of his family, from the Conquest to the time that 
his son and heir, Sir Edward Clcre, erected this tomb." 
As a work of art, the Tomb possesses considerable excel- 
lence. The carved Armorial Bearings retain much of 
the original brilliancy of their colouring. Among the 
Brasses is one for Anne Boleyne, aunt of the unfortunate 
Queen, and another of Isabella Cheyne, (date 1485) remark- 
able as exhibiting the earliest authentic example of the 
necklace. An elaborately-wrought Oak Chest, of great size, 
strongly banded with iron, and secured by five curiously 
formed locks and keys, is preserved in Blickling Church; 
but a relic still more curious and unique is a Poor-box, of 
very primitive character, heart-shaped, and painted blue, the letters, " Pray remember the 
Pore," being gilt. We give engravings of both these peculiar and very interesting 




JURLEIGH, or Burghley House, the princely seat of the Marquis of 
Exeter, is one of the most magnificent mansions of its period ; 
it has come down to us intact, and is perhaps more interesting 
from its associations with the "glorious days"- than any other 
edifice now remaining in the kingdom. The halls are still 
standing where the famous Lord Treasurer entertained his 
Sovereign and her dazzling court ; while Nonsuch, Theobalds, 
and Cannons have vanished their sites are ploughed over ; 
and Kenilworth has become a venerable antiquity, a moss-covered ruin. 

In the reign of the Confessor, Burghley was let to farm by the Church of Burgh, 
to Alfgar, the king's chaplain, for his life. The crown having seized it at his death, 
Abbot Leofric redeemed it for eight marcs of gold. In Doomsday Book it is rated at 4-Os. 
As usual in the feudal ages, it often changed hands, when treasons and rebellions 
were every-day occurrences. In the 9th of Edward II. Nicholas de Segrave was possessed 
of Burleigh, which had descended to Alice de Lisle, as part of the inheritance of John 
de Armenters. The successor of Nicholas de Segrave was Warine de 1'Isle. He was 
one of the great men who, in the 14th of Edward II., took up arms against the King, 
under the command of Thomas Earl of Lancaster ; was made prisoner with him at the 
battle of Barrow Bridge, and the week following executed at Pontefract. In the 1st of 
Edward III., Gerard de Lisle, son of the above Warine, was restored to his father's 
possessions, and accompanied several times the King in his wars with Scotland and France. 
After undergoing many of the usual changes to which property was subjected in such 
uncertain times, it finally passed into possession of a family named Cecil, as we now spell 
it, although it appears to have enjoyed many variations of orthography in its transition. 
The founder of the house and family was a gentleman named William Cecil, who 
accompanied the Duke of Somerset to Scotland. At the battle of Musselburgh field he 


narrowly escaped being killed, a gentleman who out of kindness pushed him out of the 
level of a cannon, having his arm shattered as he withdrew it. On his return he was 
made Secretary of State, and in some political trouble was sent prisoner to the Tower : 
but no charge being brought against him he was released from his captivity, again made 
Secretary of State, became a Privy Councillor, and received the honour of knighthood. 
During the reign of Mary, he attached himself much to the fortunes of her younger 
sister, Elizabeth. When she ascended the throne, fresh honours were lavished on him : 
he became Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, Master of the Court of Wards, 
Baron Burleigh, Lord High Treasurer, and Knight of the Garter. He was much 
afflicted with gout in his latter years, and on one occasion when he was confined with 
an attack of it, at his house in the Strand (called Burleigh House, where a street of 
that name is now built), the Queen condescended to visit him. On one of these 
occasions, coming with a high head-dress, and the servant, as she entered the door, 
desiring her to stoop ; she replied, " For your master's sake I will stoop, but not 
for the King of Spain." He died in 1598, having been Lord High Treasurer twenty-six 
years, and was buried in the parish-church of St. Martin, Stamford. A superb white 
alabaster monument, sixteen feet high, is raised over his tomb ; his figure lies under a 
canopy supported by several black marble columns. It is in the style of the period, 
and stands under the arch of the north aisle and body of the church. 

Thomas, Lord Burghley, the Lord Treasurer's eldest son, was created Earl of Exeter 
in 1605 ; and Henry, tenth Earl of Exeter and eleventh Lord Burghley, his lineal 
descendant, was created Marquis of Exeter in 1801. His son, Brownlow Cecil, the 
second Marquis, who succeeded his father in 1S(M, is the present possessor of the 
princely mansion and estates. 

The mansion we are about to notice is built on ground where there is but little 
undulation of surface, and stands about a mile and a half from the old town of Stamford, 
in Northamptonshire, separated from Lincolnshire by the river Welland, which runs 
through Stamford. At the northern extremity of the domain stand the park lodges : 
they are extremely handsome erections, and more than usually important buildings for 
such purposes. Although built so recently as the year 1801, by Henry the tenth Earl, 
they are in perfect harmony of design with the main edifice. The cost of their erection 
exceeded 5000/. The park is about two miles in length and a mile and a half in 
width. It was arranged and planted by the famous " Capability Brown," and is well 
adorned with fine ash, elm, chestnut, and other trees, as well as plantations of shrubberies. 
A temple, grottos, and picturesque buildings for domestic or agricultural services, add to 
its beautiful character. It is well stocked with deer. On entering the park to proceed 
to the house, a noble piece of water, three quarters of a mile in length, is spanned 
by a handsome bridge of three arches, having the balustrades decorated with four 


statues of lions couchant. In the park enclosure are the remains of the ancient Roman 
road, called Ermine Street, from Stilton through Castor to Stamford : it is easily traceable 
in many parts. 

On arriving opposite the mansion, the eye is bewildered at its unusual extent : its 

numerous turrets, and the spire of the Chapel rising 
above the parapets, give it the aspect of a town com- 
prised in comparatively diminished area, rather than 
a single abode. The appended engraving exhibits 
a portion of the west front. The mansion stands in 
an extensive lawn. Mr. Gilpin, in his " Tour to the 
Highlands," thus describes it: " Burghley House is 
one of the noblest monuments of British architecture 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth, when the great 
outlines of magnificence were rudely drawn, but unim- 
proved by taste. It is an immense pile, forming the 
four sides of a large court, and although decorated 
with a variety of fantastic ornaments, according to 
the fashion of the time, before Grecian architecture 
had introduced symmetry, proportion, and elegance 
into the plans of private houses, it has still an 
august appearance. The interior court is particularly 
striking : the spire of the Chapel is neither, I think, in itself an ornament, nor has it 
any effect, except at a distance ; when it contributes to give this immense pile the 
consequence of a town." Horace Walpole says, John Thorpe was the architect ; and 
that he superintended the erection of the greater part of this stupendous building. 
This assertion is corroborated by the plans, still extant, in this celebrated architect's 
collection of designs, now in the Soane Museum. It is built of freestone and forms a 
massive parallelogram, enclosing a court 110 feet long and 
70 feet wide. The principal entrance is on the north side, 
and offers a frontage of nearly 200 feet, pierced with three 
ranges of large square-headed windows, divided by stone 
mullions and transoms. The outline is varied by towers at the 
angles surmounted by turrets with cupolas ; the frontage is 
varied by advancing bays between the towers ; a pierced 
parapet, occasionally embellished with ornaments that mark the 
Elizabethan era, crowns the walls. The chimneys are con- 
structed in the hollows of Doric columns, which are in groups, connected by a frieze 
and cornice of the order; as they are very numerous, and of fine proportions rising 


loftily in the air they combine with the turrets, &c. to give a great variety of forms 
to the superior portion of the main design. In the arched roof under the passage to 
the interior court, which was in the first instance intended to be the chief entrance, are 
escutcheons of the family arms, on one of which is inscribed " W. DOM de Burghley, 
1577," being the year when that part of the house was built. On the opposite side 
of the court, over the dial and under the spire, is carved the date 1585, which indicates 
when that part was erected ; and on the present entrance, on the northern side, stands 
the date 1587 between the windows. The house has been much adorned by various 
successive possessors, and at the present time few seats, either in England or on the 
Continent, can vie with Burghley House. 

Queen Elizabeth frequently visited her favourite minister, her Lord Treasurer, here ; and 
on April 23, 1603, James I., on his journey from Scotland, came to Burghley : the next day, 
being Easter Sunday, he attended divine worship at the parish church, St. Martin's, Stamford, 
when the Bishop of Lincoln preached before him. 

Entering the court, the beauties of 
the architecture become apparent. The 
appended engraving represents the en- 
trance from the courtyard. The east- 
ern side is the most highly decorated, 
and its three stories adorned with the 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, 
in super-position. Above the last are 
two large stone lions, supporting the 
arms of the family. Over an arch 
before the chapel is a bust of King- 
William III. ; the balustrades are 
enriched with a variety of sculptured 
vases. Four large gates from the 
various sides open into the court, and 
give entrance to the several portions 
of the building, which contains nearly one hundred and fifty apartments, many of them of 
great dimensions, all furnished suitably for their purpose, and a considerable number in 
gorgeous profusion of decorative ornament and splendid furniture. It is one of the few 
palatial mansions of a refined, gay, and brilliant period, which remain carefully preserved, 
and undisturbed by modern upholsterers. It is impossible to speak too highly of the 
elegance and splendour of the interior. The first apartment on entering is the spacious 
Hall: from some of the remaining features of its construction, it has been imagined 
that the great Lord Treasurer did not build a new house from the foundation, but that 


an edifice existed to which he imparted vastness by the additions he made. The 
dimensions of this Hall show at once that it includes a noble space, being sixty-eight 
feet long and thirty feet broad. It receives light from two large windows, and has & 
fine open-worked timber roof, springing from corbels, very similar in idea to the roofs 
of Westminster Hall, and the Parliament House at Edinburgh. The chimneypiece is in 
perfect keeping with the Baronial Hall, and is of stone, finely sculptured, bearing for its 
principal device in the centre the shield and supporters of the founder of the family ; it is 
also ornamented by a number of pictures, some of which are portraits. There are statues in 
marble of life size, one of which, very much esteemed, represents Andromeda chained to the 
rock, and the Sea-monster. It was purchased in Rome, a century ago, by the fifth Earl of 
Exeter, for 300/. " Drakard's Guide" attributes it to Peter Stephen Monnot ; but Brydges, 
in his " History of Northamptonshire," says it is by Domenico Guidi. 

From the Hall, visitors pass through the Saloon, and up the ancient grand vaulted stone 
staircase in the north-west part of the house, to an apartment called the Chapel Room, which 
contains nearly fifty pictures, mostly of sacred subjects. A true description of the numerous 
pictures in the different rooms is sadly wanted, as we find one here called Titian's Wife and 
Son, attributed to Teniers ! in " Drakard's Guide," published at Stamford. Here also 
stands a model of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, curiously inlaid. The Chapel, to which 
the preceding serves as an ante-room, is spacious, being forty-two feet long, thirty-five feet 
wide, and eighteen feet high. The ceiling is panelled and studded with devices ; the side- 
walls are wainscoted half-way up, and at intervals are placed, on pedestals, ten antique bronzed 
figures, of life size, each holding a lamp. Festoons of fruit and flowers, carved by Grinling 
Gibbons, are its principal ornaments. Many of the finest apartments in the house, such as 
chimneypieces, are profusely decorated with his valuable carving. A seat on the left- 
hand side, nearest to the altar, is pointed out as having been occupied by Queen Elizabeth 
when on a visit to Burghley. There are some large pictures placed on the walls of another 
space, which forms also a portion of the Chapel at the western end. This part, thirty-one 
feet long and twenty-four feet broad, is wainscoted to the ceiling, and is filled with open seats, 
for servants and others connected with the familv to attend divine service. 


The gorgeous Ball-room succeeds, fifty feet in length, twenty-eight in width, and twenty- 
six in height. The walls are painted with historical and other subjects by Laguerre. The 
candelabra, which are placed on pedestals of japan gilt about two feet high, are truly 
splendid. Two of them, placed by the sides of the lofty bow-window, are the figures of 
Negroes kneeling, and supporting the lights on their heads. The Brown Drawing-room, 
filled with pictures and a carved chimneypiece by Gibbons, leads to the Black Bed- 
chamber, so called from the hangings of the bed, which are of black satin lined with 
yellow ; the chimneypiece here is also by Gibbons. The west Dressing-room has in the 
window recess a toilette-table, set out with richly gilt dressing-plate. The north-west 



Dressing-room is hung with pictures; indeed every one of the principal rooms boasts of 
pictorial decoration, and among the profusion are many fine examples of ancient art. 
In a small apartment called the China Closet is an extensive gathering of varied specimens 
of antique Chinese, and Indian porcelain. Queen Elizabeth's Bed-room is hung with 
tapestry, and contains an ancient state bed with hangings of green embossed velvet, on 
a ground of gold tissue ; with chairs to correspond. The toilette-table is set out with 
richly chased dressing-plate. A number of other apartments in this range follow, 
similarly furnished and adorned. On the south side of the house there is another suite 
of grand apartments called the George Rooms, which were decorated in L789, under the 
express direction and control of Brownlow, earl of Exeter, who selected the whole of the 
ornaments from publications of ancient architecture in the library at Burghley. His 
lordship directed the whole, without the assistance of any professional person. The rooms 
are wainscoted with the finest Dutch oak, of a natural colour ; the ceilings are mostly 
painted by Verrio, in mythological subjects ; carving, gilding, and tapestry, are profusely 
employed ; the furniture is of corresponding magnificence ; and pictures, sculptures, and 
antiquities are dispersed, to add to the general embellishment. The Dining-room contains 
two superb sideboards laden with massive silver-gilt plate ; a silver cistern weighs 3400 
ounces, and a lesser one 656 ounces : there are also coronation dishes, ewers, &c. Two 
apartments are Libraries ; they are filled with many MSS., fine and rare books, 
antiquities, and an extensive collection of ancient coins. 

The new State Bed-room, in the suite of George Rooms, contains a state bed, which 
has the reputation of being the most splendid in Europe. It stands on a base or platform, 
ascended by a couple of steps. A canopy, richly carved and entirely gilt, is supported 
at the angles by clusters of columns rising from elaborate tripods, which support the 
canopy or dome. The height of this construction, which resembles a temple, is twenty 
feet from the ground ; 250 yards of striped silk coral velvet and 900 yards of white satin 
are employed in the hangings. The bed is a couch, which stands under the temple. 
The fifth George Room is called " Heaven," from the multitude of Pagan deities with 
which Verrio has covered it ; and the grand staircase (not the vaulted one) is usually called 
" Hell," in consequence of the painted ceiling representing the poetic Tartarus. 

It would be vain to attempt a minute description of all that interests the learned or 
accomplished visitor ; a volume has already been published, which in itself is but an 
abridged account. Every faculty of rational enjoyment is gratified to repletion in viewing 
the gorgeous halls of Burghley House. 





Bp P 

ASTLE ASHBY, the venerable and deeply interesting seat of the 
Most Noble the Marquess of Northampton, is situate about eight 
miles from the town of Northampton. 

Much curious information exists concerning the early history of the 
manor ; to which, however, we shall not be able to enter at any length. 
No mention is made of the Saxon lord of " Asebi ;" but in the time of 
the Confessor it was rated at twenty shillings yearly : this yearly value 
had quadrupled at the time of the Domesday Survey, when the estate 
"was held by Hugh, under the countess Judith." In the reign of 
Henry III., the manor was seized under a forfeiture, incurred bv 
David de Esseby, for aiding the confederate barons against the king. After the battle 
of Evesham, the estates of all these barons were confiscated ; but by the subsequent 
conciliatory policy of the sovereign, the offenders were allowed to redeem their lands by 
payment of five years' value within three years. This boon led to much disputation and 
some violence between the dejure and de facto holders ; and in the case of Esseby (Ashbv), 
Alan la Zouch, the then holder, died of fever induced by wounds inflicted on him before 
the king's justices in Westminster Hall, by Earl Warren (guardian of Isabella, grandchild 
of David de Esseby), who sought to recover the estates for his ward. Immediately after 
this outrage Earl Warren fled, but was pursued by Prince Edward, son of the king, who 
captured him, and it was only by much crying for mercy, and many protestations of making 
such reparation as he could, that he saved himself from immediate punishment. 

It is not necessary to trace the various hands through which Castle Ashby passed 
subsequently to this period, until we arrive at the fifteenth century, when the estates became 
the property of the Compton family, ancestors of the present noble possessor, who only 
succeeded in establishing a claim by a re-purchase in 1165, after fifty years' possession, in 
consequence of " rival nuncupative wills" made by previous owners. Sir William Compton, 
the purchaser, was the head of a family long settled at Compton Winyate, in Warwickshire, 
from which place the family name was derived ; at the death of his father, Sir William had 
not attained his majority, and being in ward to Henry VII., was chosen by the king to 
attend his son Prince Henry, who, on subsequently ascending the throne, gave him an 


appointment as groom of the bed-chamber. Sir William, then Mr. Compton, soon became 
a favourite with the sovereign, one of whose freaks was to attend incog, a tournament got up 
by some of the courtiers, on which occasion he was attended by his favourite, Mr. Compton, 
who received a dangerous wound by an accidental collision with Sir Edward Nevill. In 
November 1510, the king proclaimed a tournament, " at which he with his two aids, Charles 
Brandon, afterwards Duke of Suffolk, and William Compton, gave an universal challenge 
with the spear at tilt one day, and at tourney with the sword the other." Magnificently 
accoutred, the royal party entered the lists, gained great distinction, and received the prize. 
Afterwards, in 1511, the king granted to William Compton Esq., "his trusty serv'nte and 
true liegman, for the good and (acceptable) s'vyce whiche he hathe doone to his Hignesse, 
and durynge his lyfe entendithe to doo," the manor of Tottenham, in Middlesex, and he 
was honoured, in the following year, with an armorial augmentation out of the royal arms. 
" Mayster Compton," as he is called in an old MS., became Sir William in 1513, being 
knighted by the king after the battle of the Spurs (5 Hen. VIII.). He died in 1528, 
after retaining through life the confidence and regard of his wayward master, from whom he 
received many valuable marks of attachment. His son Peter, who was only six years of age, 
became the ward of Cardinal Wolsey, and afterwards of the Earl of Shrewsbury, to whose 
daughter he was married. He died in his minority, leaving one son, Henry Compton, who 
was knighted by the Earl of Leicester in 1566, and summoned to parliament by writ, as 
Baron Compton, in 1572 (14- Eliz.). About this time another attempt was made to wrest 
the estate of Ashby from the Compton family, which, however, ended in a compromise 
between the contending parties, each making some concessions, " for the finall endinge of 
all sutes and controversies." Lord Compton was one of the Commissioners deputed to sit 
in judgment on Mary queen of Scots. 

William, second Lord Compton, married the daughter and heiress of Sir John Spencer, 
alderman of London, and thus obtained a large addition to his possessions. This union 
would appear to have been made secretly, and without the consent of the lady's father ; it took 
place at the church of St. Catharine Colman, Fenchurch St., as the register shews : " 18 Apr. 
1599, William Lorde Compton, and Elizabeth Spencer, maryed, being thrice asked in the 
churche." Lord Compton, by reason of zealous service, was regarded with great favour by 
James I., who made him President of the Council within the marches of Wales, to which 
he added the honour of Lord Lieutenant of the Principality, and the counties of Worcester, 
Hereford, and Salop. In 1617 he was created Earl of Northampton. He died in 1630, 
and was succeeded by his only son Spencer, who became one of the most distinguished men 
of the age. He was an accomplished linguist, and filled posts of much distinction about 
the person of the king ; ultimately taking an active part in the great civil war, and after 
many brilliant feats of arms he was killed at Hopton Heth. He left six sons, all worthy 
of their heroic father, distinguished like him for their devotion to the royal cause. 


James, the eldest son of the loyal and gallant peer, became his successor the third 
Earl of Northampton. At Hopton Heath he was carried wounded from the field, 
immediately before his father received his death-wound : afterwards, he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in the king's service, particularly at Lichfield. On the Restoration he 
headed a troop of two hundred gentlemen, " clothed in grey and blue," at the entry of 
Charles II. into London ; and " his loyalty was subsequently rewarded with several 
honourable appointments, which he held till his death, at Castle Ash by, December 15, 
1681." George, fourth Earl, died in 1727, and was succeeded by his eldest son, James, fifth 
earl, who was summoned to the House of Peers, by writ, in 1711. He married Elizabeth 
Shirley, Baroness Ferrars, of Chartley, by whom he had issue, and left Charlotte, his 
only surviving child, who married the first Marquess Townshend. George, the sixth earl, 
after enjoying his title but four years, died without issue, and was succeeded by his 
nephew, Charles, seventh earl, a nobleman of considerable accomplishments, who was 
made ambassador extraordinary to Venice in 1763. He died at Lyons, on his way 
home, leaving an only daughter, Elizabeth, wife of the late, and grandmother of the 
present, Earl of Burlington. Spencer, eighth earl, brother of the preceding, was succeeded, 
in 1797. by his only son, Charles, ninth earl, who was created Baron Wilmington, Earl 
Compton, and Marquess of Northampton in 1812. On his death, in 1828, the titles 
and estates devolved on his only son, Spencer Joshua Alwyne Compton, born in 1790, 
the present Marquess of Northampton. 

The noble marquess is not alone distinguished by high descent and lofty position ; few 
persons of the age have more assiduously cultivated science and letters. His lordship is 
president of the Royal Society, and member of various other learned Institutions ; and 
his " annual gatherings" of distinguished or accomplished men at his mansion in London, 
have been among the most gratifying and beneficial events of a period which recognises 
genius as a distinction, and gives its proper status to mind.* 

Castle Ashby is about two miles from the White-Mill Station, on the Northampton 
and Peterborough Railway, from which a convenient road offers facilities to vehicles, 
while pedestrian visitors may shorten the distance, and enjoy extensive prospects of scenery, 
by taking a footpath over the hills thus at once saving time and augmenting enjoyment. 
On ascending the first of these hills, he sees before him an extensive valley ; on the opposite 
hill is placed the castle, of which, however, as yet he can obtain no glimpse, being hidden 

* We borrow a passage from Mr. Robinson's " Vitruvius 
Britannicus," which conveys a compliment as justly merited 
as it is well expressed. " On the resignation of the Duke of 
Sussex, the Marquess of Northampton was elevated to the 
chair of the Royal Society ; and if ardent zeal in the pro- 

motion of scientific truth, unaffected affability of manners 
liberal and unostentatious hospitality, and exemplary private 
character, are deemed qualifications for the blue riband of 
science, his lordship's claim to the distinguished honour must 
be universally admitted." 


from his view by a dense mass of noble trees, which protect it from the northern winds. 

From this point the church is an object 
of much beauty in the landscape, and 
being partially screened by fine trees, 
offers, as the visitor proceeds towards 
it, many pleasing and picturesque com- 
binations. Emerging suddenly from 
under thick foliage, we tread upon an 
extended lawn, and the whole of the 
southern front of the mansion is at 
once in sight : its symmetrical regu- 
larity, its not unhappy marriage of 
English with Italian, its stately octangular towers, and the silvery grey of its time-bleached 
walls, all combine to produce a most agreeable impression. It is placed on the crest of 
the hill, the slope in its rear, a large tract of table land in front; at right angles with 
the front a most magnificent avenue of noble trees passes far into the distance, terminating 
on the northern side of Yardley Chase. 

Mr. Robinson, in the " Vitruvius Britannicus," relates all that is known regarding the 
erection of the house. " The castle, embattled by license to Bishop Langton, in the reign 
of Edward I., was the occasional residence of successive proprietors. Sir William de la 
Pole, and Margaret Peveril, his wife, in 1358, dated a feoffment of their manors of Ashley 
and Little Brington at " Castell Assheby ;" but when acquired by the family of Grey de 
Ruthyn, in the fifteenth century, its proximity to their patrimonial seat at Yardley Hastings, 
would naturally lead to its partial and, ultimately, entire desertion. A century had scarcely 
elapsed before Leland thus recorded its desolate condition. " Almost in the middle way 
betwixt Welingborow and Northampton I passed Assheby, more than a mile off on the 
left hand, wher hathe bene a castle, that now is clene downe, and is made but a septum 
for bestes." By a survey in 1565, it appears that George Carleton, Esq., under a lease 
granted by Sir William Compton for sixty-one years, held the site of the manor and 
farm of " Asheby David," with all the demesne lands, "whereunto pertaineth the old 
ruined castle." Camden, in his " Britannica," says : "From hence (Northampton) men 
maketh haste away by Castle Ashby, where Henry L. Compton began to build a faire 
sightly house." The commencement of the present stately edifice may, therefore, be safely 
dated between the expiration of the lease in 1583 and the death of this nobleman in 
1589- One of the requests of the rich heiress of Spencer to her lord was, to " build up 
Ashby House." And the original pile may be presumed to have been completed when 
King James I. and his queen favoured its noble owner with a visit in 1605. The dates of 


l6%4< on the east front and on the two turrets, must have reference to the subsequent 
alterations and erections by Inigo Jones. 

The castle buildings occupy a huge quadrangle, with 
a garden court in the centre. The most important apart- 
ments are on the northern and the southern sides. The 
north front is of pure Elizabethan architecture, plain, 
but of massive design, combined with a grandeur and 
impressiveness not often attained with such unadorned 
simplicity. The principal, or southern front, is remark- 
able for the curious anomaly it presents in the mixture 
of Elizabethan with Italian architecture. Pure taste, of 
course, rejects such experiments, but if they be at all 
allowed, perhaps it would hardly be possible to find an 
instance in which the incongruous association is less offen- 
sive than in this front ; arising, no doubt, from no attempt 
having been made to engraft the one style upon the other, 
both being kept distinct. The Italian facade was added to enclose the court, and complete 
the quadrangle : it was designed by Inigo Jones, and may be considered a good example of 
its peculiar character. In contrast with the plain, massive, Elizabethan wings, the work 
of Jones may, perhaps, justly be charged with something of a petite character ; but, 
nevertheless, taking the whole together, it forms a composition by no means unpleasing. 
On entering the castle the visitor is ushered into the Great Hall, a room of noble dimensions, 
and which formerly possessed many claims to admiration, but, unfortunately, it has been 
modernised, and, therefore, after noting the fine pictures it contains, chiefly old family 
portraits,* we pass on to the Dining-Room, which also contains some choice pictures : 
the most striking are portraits of the present noble marquess and his lady, apparently by 
Hoppner, and some choice gems of the Dutch school. Hence we pass into the Billiard- 
Room, where, after admiring the table and a few good pictures, there is nothing to detain 
us, and we enter the Drawing-Room, in which is an excellent large picture of landscape, 
with cattle and figures, the painter of which is not known. Presently we come to the 
Great Staircase, which may be admired for its rich old oak, carved, according to the 

* Among the pictures are portraits of Bishop Compton, 
Sir Stephen Fox, a " conversation piece," by West, including 
the eighth Earl of Northampton, his lady, and two children. 
There is also a portrait of Spenser, second earl (in armour), 
who, as we have seen, devoted himself so bravely to the 
royal cause in the civil wars, and was killed at Hopton 
Heath : at an advanced age he raised a regiment of foot and 
a troop of horse at his own expense. Other portraits at 
Castle Ashhy are, a curious and finely- painted head of 

Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was killed by Felton. 
In the Long Gallery are portraits of John Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, and his countess, painted on panel; these are 
valuable as examples of the art of the time of Henry VI. 
This Talbot was one of the most renowned heroes of his 
time, having gained no less than forty battles and skirmishes. 
At his death he was above eighty years of age. "VValpole 
ranks these pictures among the most ancient specimens of 
English painting. 



fashion of Elizabeth's time, into a variety of geometrical forms, intermingled with wreaths 
of fruit and flowers, some parts of which argue no mean skill in the artisan. From hence 
we gain entrance to an ante-room, containing tapestry, said to have been presented by 
Queen Elizabeth ; and on leaving this room we pass into the gallery of the Great Hall, 
whence we must pause awhile to examine a portrait of Mrs. Chute, by Reynolds, a most 
valuable picture of an excellent lady ; the dress is white, the picture is in a light key, 
clear, broad, and harmonious, and of perfect execution. The next room is the Octagon, 
where are two life-size figures, in marble, of Mercury and the Venus de Medici, and also 
various other statues, of minor size and merit. King William's Room next engages 
attention : it is of large dimensions, and is chiefly remarkable for its ceiling, of which 
we have given one of the enrichments as our initial. There are two magnificent bay- 
windows in this room. The Long Gallery is contained in the upper part of Inigo Jones' 
fagade, or screen, of which it runs the entire length ninety-one feet. It is not remarkable 
for any peculiar attractions. It contains a few good pictures, one of which is of interest, 
" The Battle of Hopton Heath," where, as we have seen, several members of the Compton 
family were distinguished. It will be at once understood that our remarks and enumeration 
of objects refer solely to matters of artistic or antiquarian interest ; we therefore pass 
over much that might greatly interest general readers. On the whole, the interior does 
not sustain the rich promise of the exterior ; the plan does not seem to have been carried 
out with the fulness and determination so marked in manv of our Baronial Halls. The 


gardens do not present any remarkable features : the grounds are picturesque, and contain 
a large artificial lake, formed by the famous landscape gardener Brown, to whom so many 
of our nobility entrusted their estates for such aids as art can supply to nature. The 
grounds of Castle Ashby needed, however, but little of such help ; they are naturally of a 
kind which art cannot create, nor do much to improve. 



| IRBY HALL. Although now deserted, this very venerable and exceedingly 
beautiful Mansion ranks among the finest of the kingdom.* For 
upwards of two centuries, it was the seat of "the Hattons," the 
famous Sir Christopher and his lineal descendants, the Earls of 
Winchelsea. It was built by Humphrey Stafford, the Sixth Earl of 
Northampton ; the Architect was John Thorpe, and two plans of the 
building are preserved among his collection of sketches in the Museum 
bequeathed to the nation by the late Sir John Soane; one of them 
is thus distinguished : " Kirby, whereof I layd the first stone, 1570." 
Not long afterwards, it came into the possession of the Lord Chancellor 
Hatton, who obtained it from Queen Elizabeth in exchange for that 
of Holdenby a superb structure erected by him, and which Camden 
describes as " a faire pattern of stately and magnificent building which 
maketh a faire glorious shoAv," and as "not to be matched in this 
land." f It is more than probable that Kirby was largely added to perhaps finished 
by Sir Christopher; but that it was commenced by the unhappy family of Stafford, 
is evidenced by the " Boar's head out of a Ducal Coronet," and the name " Humfree 
Stafford," to be found on several parts of the building. The front was decorated 
by Inigo Jones about the year 1638. The mansion is the property of the present 
Earl of Winchelsea, who was born there. It remains in a comparatively good state 

* " Kirby Hall is situated in Corby Hundred, about nine 
miles north-west of Oundle, partly in the Parish of Bulwick, 
and partly in that of Gretton the Church of which contains 
several monuments to members of the family of Hatton." 

t The family of Hatton is stated to be descended from 
Ivon, a noble of Norway, whose sixth son, Wolfaith, obtained 
the Manor of Hatton, in Cheshire. Sir Christopher Hatton is 
said to have danced himself into Court favour ; mightily 
pleasing the fancy of " the virgin Queen" by the graces of 
his person ; and consequently rising with great rapidity through 

the several offices of Captain of the Guard, Vice Chamberlain, 
Privy Councillor, &c., until, in 1587, he obtained possession of 
the seals as Lord Chancellor. He died not long afterwards 
and, it is believed, of a broken heart, in consequence of a 
demand, on the part of his fickle and heartless mistress, for the 
payment of an old debt, which he was unable to discharge. He 
was a liberal patron of learning, one of the worthies of the 
Elizabethan age ; " so great, that his sentence was a law to 
the subject ; and so wise, that his opinion was an oracle to the 


of preservation; but it is certain that in its now neglected and deserted condition, 
the encroachments of Time will not be withstood much longer. Its situation, like 
that of so many structures of the same date in England, is unfortunately low, 
and the difficulty of drainage (it is liable at times to be flooded) offers some excuse 
for removal to a more eligible site. The approach is through an avenue of finely- 
grown trees, extending above three quarters of a mile. The first Court-yard resembled 
that of Holdenby a balustraded inclosure, with two grand archways. The external 
front is the work of Inigo Jones, by whom also much of the interior was considerably 
altered. Passing through this, the visitor enters the principal Quadrangle (which 
forms the subject of Mr. Richardson's drawing). " On each side of the arched 
entrance are fluted Ionic pilasters, with an enriched frieze and entablature; the 
arched window above, opening upon a Gallery supported by consoles, has a semi- 
circular pediment, broken in the centre, and inclosing a bracket for a bust, with 
the date 1638." The window is, however, an insertion by Inigo Jones ; and being of a 
much later date than the other parts of the front, sadly mars the effect of the 
architecture of old Thorpe. The third story contains the motto and date " Je. Seray 
1572, Loyal." The Garden front has a raised Terrace now a corn-field in which 
the slopes and a few ornamental seats yet remain. This front supplies one of the 
grandest examples of Elizabethan architecture existing in England. It was built 
by Thorpe, and essentially agrees with the German School of Architecture of that 
day which the British Architect had evidently studied. The Garden seats, vases, 
&c., of which there endure only broken fragments, are in the style, and believed 
to be the works, of Inigo Jones. The Garden was terminated by a remarkably 
picturesque little bridge, ornamented with a balustrade and scroll work, now, like all 
other objects about the structure, or connected with it, submitted to the wanton assaults 
of every heedless passer-by. Modern Vandalism has, indeed, been very busy every- 
where within and around this venerable Mansion ; a farmer occupies a suite of rooms, 
the decorations of which would excite astonishment and admiration in a London 
Club-house ; farm-servants sleep surrounded by exquisite carvings ; one room in the 
south side of the Quadrangle, decorated with a fine old fire-place, in which are the arms 
of the Lord Chancellor, served, at the time of the artist's visit, the purpose of a dog- 
kennel ; and an elegant Chapel, constructed by Inigo Jones, is entered with difficulty 
through piles of lumber and heaps of rubbish. 

Our initial letter is copied from one of the Finials, which crown the pilasters and 
gables in the Quadrangle. They formerly held staves with moveable vanes (in metal), 
" turning with every winde." 




OLLATTOX HALL, the seat of the Right Hon. Digby 
Willouo-hbv, the seventh Baron Middleton, is situate 


three miles west of Nottingham, in the centre of a finely 
wooded park, remarkable for a judicious combination of 


* wood and water. It stands on a considerable elevation, 
: and is seen from all parts of the surrounding country; 
of which, consequently, it commands extensive views not 
only of rich and fertile valleys, but of one of the busiest and 
most populous of manufacturing towns. We give on this 
pa<re an engraving of the north entrance to the mansion. 
The mansion was erected by Sir Francis Willoughby, Knt., towards the close of the 

sixteenth century, as we learn from an inscription 

over one of its entrances. In the old history of the 

county of Nottingham by Thoroton there is a descent 

of this family, down to the builder of the present 

Mansion, whose daughter Bridget married Sir 

Percival Willoughby, of another branch of the 

family. Sir Percival left five sons, the eldest of 

whom, Sir Francis, who died in 1665, was father 

of Francis Willoughby, Esq., one of the greatest 

virtuosi in Europe. His renowned history of birds 

was published in Latin after his death, in 1676. 

He died in 1672, leaving two sons and one 

daughter. The latter, Cassandra, was married to 

James Duke of Chandos. The eldest son died 

unmarried, in his twentieth year. The second 

son was created a peer in the tenth of Queen 

Anne, A.D. 1711. In 1781, on the death of Thomas Lord Middleton without issue, 



the estate and its honours descended to Henry Willoughby, Esq., of Birdfall, county 
of York. It is a remarkable circumstance, that up to the present time the heir-at-law, 
in consequence of there being no proximate issue, has always been a remote member 
of the family. 

The exterior of the mansion is peculiarly grand and imposing. It is in the fashion 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign, or rather the fashion just then beginning to be introduced, 
and is in the Italian style, but of Gothic arrangement. It is square, with four large 
towers adorned with pinnacles ; and in the centre the body of the house rises higher, 
with projecting coped turrets at the corners. The front and sides are adorned with 
square projecting Ionic pilasters ; the square stone pillars are without tracery ; and 
" the too great uniformity of the whole is broken by oblong niches, circular ones filled 

with busts of philosophers, &c., and some very 
rich mouldings;" "In the richness of its orna- 
ments it is surpassed by no Mansion in the 
kingdom." The accompanying engraving represents 
the Terrace and south entrance to the mansion. 

The Hall is lofty, and the roof, which is 
supported by arches somewhat like Westminster 
Hall, has a very noble appearance. The screen 
in the Hall is supported by pillars of the Doric 
order : there is a variety of quaint devices under 
the beams, in conformity with the taste of the 
time ; such as heads of satyrs, chimeras, &c. &c. 
The walls and ceilings were painted by Laguerre. 
The rooms in general are on a grand scale, lofty 
and spacious. The fabric, taken as one built by a 
commoner, exceeds the loftiest ideas of magnificence. 
It is wholly of stone, and must have cost an immense 

sum in its erection. Indeed the learned Camden, in the first edition of his "Britannia," 
pays to the builder a somewhat equivocal compliment, asserting that by the time it was 
finished he had sunk in its erection " three lordships ; " " this Sir Francis," he adds, 
" at great expence, in a foolish display of his wealth, built a magnificent and most 
elegant house with a fine prospect." 




ENTHALL MANOR,* Shropshire, is in that part of Wenlock hundred 
which was comprised in the Saxon hundred of Patintune ; a division 
which became obsolete soon after the compilation of Domesday 
Book. Though in the present day Benthall constitutes a parish in 
itself, it was included in that of Wenlock till the latter end of the 
seventeenth century. In the reign of Edward the Confessor and, 
probably, from a much earlier period this estate belonged to the 
priory of Wenlock ; and when William, the successor of that pious 
king, distributed lands among his Norman followers, at the expense 
of the Saxon nobles, he had too much regard for his reputation to deprive the Church of her 
possessions. Reconciling, however, his piety to worldly policy, King William made the 
priory of Wenlock subservient to the abbey of Rheims, and thus contrived to reward the 
latter establishment for successful prayers made in favour of his expedition, and at the 
same time to raise a Norman influence over possessions of the English Church. The abbots 
of Rheims, like modern non-resident landlords, had cause to regret their absence ; for 
we find that in the reign of Richard I. the Prior of Wenlock dealt with his lands as if the 
Norman abbot had no concern with them : and when, at length, in the reign of Edward 
III., the Abbot of Rheims obtained the king's charter, confirming to him and his successors 
all the English lands which belonged to his abbey, the interposition of the sovereign was 

* The name has been said to be compounded of Sent, an 
old English word for brow of a hill, and the Celtic uZ, or 
hat (Lat. altus), a termination commonly found in names of 
hills. The motto of Benthall, " Tende Sene et alts, pete," 
seems to allude to this interpretation of the name ; but as, 
in Domesday Book, the name is spelt "Benhale," the first 
syllable may be derived from the Gaelic word En, or An 


water, the letter B being only the prefix importing the 
article the. This suggestion receives some weight from the 
fact that the Benthall estate, and one of the same name 
in another part of Shropshire, are washed by a river the 
Severn. The derivation of the second syllable is too plainly 
correct to be interfered with. 


ineffectual as far as it related to Benthall, that estate having been in the meantime 
irrevocably disposed of. 

In a series of charters possessed by the Benthall family, some of which are written 
in the Saxon language, though without date, it appears that the manor was owned many 
years by a family who took their surname from this estate, and these are referred to in 
the hundred-rolls of the reign of King Henry III., as having been the* ancestors of 
Phillip de Benethall, then Lord of Benethall, who held certain lands under the Prior 
of Wenlock. Early in the following reign, however, on Phillip's forfeiting his lands, 
Benthall was re-granted to Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells and Lord 
Chancellor, whose annexation of this and numerous other estates to his neighbouring 
castle of Acton Burnell is not free from suspicion. The chancellor's object seems, 
however, to have been the preferment of his family, and, perhaps, an addition to 
his local influence, rather than an increase to his own revenue, for no sooner had 
he acquired the manor than he subgranted it to his kinsman, John Burnell, who 
describes himself Lord of Benethall, and appears to have resided here many years ; but 
on his succeeding his son Henry, as Abbot of Buildwas, his eldest son, Phillip Burnell, 
received possession of his father's lands, and, dropping the patronymic of Burnell, assumed 
the surname of De Benethall.* Several acts of liberality on the part of this Phillip towards 
the fraternity at Buildwas are recorded to his credit ; and his father appears to have been 
a considerable benefactor of the abbey. The descendants of this Phillip de Benethall, 
and his wife Maude, daughter of Nicholas Forrer, of Lynley, continued to hold the lordship 
of Benthall, with other lands, upon conditions of feudal service to the elder branch of the 
Burnell family, namely, the descendants of Sir Hugh, the eldest brother of the chancellor ; 
among whom are included the Handloes and the Lovells, descended from Maud, sister and 
heiress of Edward Lord Burnell, the grandson of Sir Hugh, until Francis Viscount Lovell, 
Lord Chamberlain of the Household and Chief Butler of King Richard III., having 
fought for his sovereign at Bosworth Field, his estates were forfeited to the Lancastrian 
king, Henry VIl.t 

On the loss of the battle, with which King Richard lost his life as well as his ill-gotten 
crown, Lord Lovell escaped to Saint John's Abbey at Colchester, and afterwards to Flanders, 
where Margaret, duchess of Burgundy, sister to the late King Edward IV., supplied an 
army of two thousand men ; with which, and associated with John de la Pole, Earl of 
Lincoln, he invaded England, and was killed at the battle of Newark-upon-Trent, in the 
third year of King Henry VII. Robert Benthall, the seventh in descent from Phillip 
Burnell, was owner of the estate at this time, and continued to enjoy it, notwithstanding 
Lord Lovell's forfeiture, t From this circumstance there can be no doubt that Robert had 

* Benthall MS S. Dugdale's " Monasticon." f Polyd. Virg. } Heralds' " Visitations of Salop." 


proved himself of Lancastrian politics ; and it is probable that he was one of the party of 
eight hundred gentlemen and others of Shropshire who were collected by his cousin, Sir 
Richard Corbet, and accompanied the Earl of Richmond from Shrewsbury to Bosworth. 

From this period the family of De Benethall, or Benthall, held the manor immediately 
under the crown,* till the death of Richard Benthall, Esq.,t in 1720, who, by his will, gave 
this estate, together with other lands, to his affianced cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of Ralph 
Browne, Esq., of Caughley, who was high-sheriff of the county anno 1567, by Catherine, 
the daughter and sole heiress of Edward Benthall. By the will of Ann, widow of Ralph 
Browne, Esq. (who was a son of the before-mentioned Ralph), the manor of Benthall was 
entailed, in the year 1768, on Lucia, the only daughter and heiress of Francis Turner 
Blythe, Esq., afterwards the wife of the Rev. Edward Harries, Rector of Hanwood, and 
Vicar of Cleobury Mortimer, from whose eldest son, Thomas Harries, Esq., of Cructon 
Hall, the estate has been recently purchased by John George Weld, second Lord 

About twelve miles from Shrewsbury, and three from Wenlock, lies Benthall Hall, built 
by William Benthall, Esq.,t A.D. 1535, on the site of a former house, which, as well as the 
adjacent manor chapel, is mentioned in the reign of Henry III., as being then the property 
of Phillip dc Benethall ; the chapel, however, which was of early English architecture, 
remained until A.D. 1666, when it was destroyed by fire, and in its place the modern chapel, 
now the parish church of Benthall, was erected. 

The situation of Benthall has at all times enabled its proprietor to exercise considerable 
influence over elections in the borough of Wenlock, the franchise of which extends over the 
whole of this manor ; but few of the preceding residents at the Hall have aspired to the 
office of bailiff, the chief magistrate of this borough an office which, nevertheless, is of 
importance, since the liberties of Wenlock are more extensive, it is said, than those of any 
other borough in England. There is, however, in the Bodleian Library, a curious 

* It is remarkable that a superior seigniory or lordship 
in this estate was retained by the Burnell family till so late 
a period as the close of the reign of Richard III., while the 
Benthalls, the subtenants, were lords of the manor, as appears 
by their descriptions in deeds and on the court-rolls. 

So early as in the reign of Edward III., lords of manors 
began to neglect the military services, on condition of 
which they held their lands under the tenant in capite (in 
most instances a powerful baron), who, on his part, owed and 
neglected services to the king, the supreme owner of the 
lands. The rights of the superior or intermediate lords 
becoming disused, the lords of manors gradually acquired 
the tenure which, in the present day, supposes only a 
superior right in the sovereign ; yet it was not till Henry VII. 
had grasped the sceptre that the feudal system of military 
service was totally suppressed. 


In effecting national improvement, that sagacious monarch 
acted on the just conviction that his own paid army was 
better to be relied on than the retainers of his nobles : 
he wisely conceived that, having already dethroned their 
sovereign, they might be little scrupulous of removing his 
successor, whose personal pretensions to the throne, though 
strengthened by his marriage, were by no means universally 

f Buried in the family vault, near the altar of Benthall 

J This gentleman and his wife, Ann, daughter of Piers 
Cariswall, Esq. of Lillcshall, were interred in St. Clement's 
Chapel, in the south aisle of the parish church of Much 
Wenlock. There is a small estate in the parish belonging to 
their descendants, the Benthalls of Buckfast, in Devonshire. 

Rot. Hund. 


manuscript account of the honourable reception which Edward Sprott, deputy to Richard 
Benthall, of Benthall, the bailiff, and Richard Lawley, gave, on the 16th July, 1554, to 
the Lord President of the Marches of Wales, on his visiting Wenlock with Justice 
Townsend. Mr. Sprott was a member of an ancient family, who long held a considerable 
property, called " The Marsh," in the borough of Wenlock. Richard Lawley was a son of 
Mr. Thomas Lawley, who had purchased the then lately dissolved priory of Wenlock, and 
had converted it to a residence for himself. He was the ancestor of the present (anno 184?) 
Lord Wenlock and Sir Francis Lawley, Bart., to the latter of whom the extensive property of 
the Lawley family in this neighbourhood now belongs. Richard Benthall was eldest son 
and heir of William, who has been before noticed. He married Jane, daughter of Lawrence 
Ludlow, Esq., of the Morehouse in this county. 

The Hall stands on one of a chain of wooded hills called Benthall Edge, which 
rises from a sheet of water in front of the house to a point at some distance in its rear. In 
this direction the table of the hill is terminated by a precipitous wood, which skirts the river 
Severn, and, at the left, commands a distant view of mountains in Montgomeryshire, while 
the Severn is seen winding its course through the vale of Shropshire. In the foreground the 
river passes beneath the Wrekin hill, and washes the ruined walls of Buildwas Abbey. 
These objects are presented from a natural terrace raised some hundred feet above the 
Severn, which here, pent in by opposing hills, glides rapidly towards Bridgnorth. 

The oak carving in the hall, dining-room, and drawing-room of the manor-house, were 
executed by order of John Benthall, Esq. (a grandson of William), about A.D. 1618, and the 
arms of Cassey were impaled with those of Benthall in the ornamental panels, as a 
compliment to that family, upon the recent marriage of Lawrence, the heir of Benthall, with 
the daughter of Thomas Cassey, Esq.,* of Whitefield and Cassey Compton, in Gloucestershire. 

During the Parliamentary wars, Lawrence impoverished himself by his zeal in support 
of King Charles; he. was one of a list of thirty-two principal gentlemen of Shropshire 
(headed by the sheriff) who, in November 1642, entered into a mutual undertaking to 
raise a troop of dragoons for his Majesty's service ; a step deemed necessary in consequence 
of the additional strength which the Parliamentary party had acquired in the county, by 
Colonel Mitton's capture of Wem, in the preceding month of August ; but the cause of the 
Royalists sustained a far severer blow eighteen months afterwards in the loss of Shrewsbury, 
which borough, after having voluntarily expended nearly all its resources in aid of the king, 
was surprised in the night of 21st February, 1645, through the treachery of one of its 
inhabitants. After an ineffectual defence, the town was carried by the rebels, and among 

At that time the head of the family of Cassey of 
Wightfield, Cassey Compton, and Kilcot, in the county of 


These manors descended to John Cassey, Chief Baron of 

the Exchequer in the reign of Henry IV., and from him to 
Thomas, the subject of this note, who died while on a visit 
to his son-in-law at Benthall, A.D. 1634, and was buried in 
Wenlock Church. 


the prisoners whom they took on that occasion, was Ensign Cassey Benthall, the eldest son 
of Lawrence. The young officer was fortunate enough, however, to make his escape, and, 
pursuing his loyal course, had attained the rank of colonel, when he was killed, fighting 
for Charles I., at Stow-in-the-Wold, in Gloucestershire. Colonel Benthall had enlisted in 
his regiment many of the yeomen in the neighbourhood of his father's estate, and among 
those who were killed at Stow was Thomas Penderel, a brother of the famous Richard 
Penderel, who was the attendant and guide of Charles II. in his wanderings after the 
battle of Worcester. The loyalty of Lawrence Benthall was well known to Richard 
Penderel, and nearly procured for the former the honour of aiding the king to escape ; for 
the royal fugitive, having been conducted by Richard to the town of Madeley, would have 
crossed the Severn by the Benthall ferry, but his intention had been anticipated by the 
Parliamentary soldiers, who had taken possession of the boat. Charles, therefore, 
remained concealed at Madeley, in a barn of Mr. Woolf, a worthy loyalist, who entertained 
him there a night and a day ; and from thence the unfortunate king retreated to Boscobel 
wood, where he had the well-known adventure which has made the oak-leaf sacred to his 

Many were the damages sustained by the houses of the gentlemen of Shropshire 
at this troublesome period, through wanton acts of violence ; but Benthall Hall remained 
in tolerably perfect preservation till A.D. 1818, when it was partly destroyed by fire, from 
which, however, the principal rooms escaped without injury. 

The exterior of the mansion, though 
it would be commonly denominated Eli- 
zabethan, affords an example of the 
domestic architecture which was ante- 
cedent to the pure Elizabethan style. 
The landscape view of the front presented 
to the reader is taken from the avenue, 
which has been unfortunately deprived of 
its most stately trees by its present noble 
proprietor. The building is of stone ; 
the extent of frontage being relieved by 
a slight projection on the left, and by two tiers of bay-windows, which are placed at equal 
distances on either side of a porch. All the windows have stone compartments and lozenge- 
panes. The roof is gabled without finials, and the chimneys, which are tastefully placed, are 
lofty, with ornamented shafts and mouldings. The porch stands somewhat out of the centre 
of the frontage, so as agreeably to subdue the regularity of the building, and surmounted 
by a windowed room, harmonises with the other projections. The front entrance is a 
round arched door, on the left of the porch. 



The rooms in the interior are lofty. The entrance-hall has unfortunately lost all its 
wainscoting, except some carved oak over the chimneypiece, which represents the Benthall 

coat of arms with that of Cassey impaled. On 
the right is the ancient with -drawing -room, 
completely wainscoted, and containing an oak 
chimneypiece, which is executed in the diminu- 
tive Grecian style essential to Elizabethan 
architecture. The uppermost tier of columns, 
which have Ionic capitals, enclose the Benthall 
coat of arms with that of Cassey impaled, and 
immediately beneath it is the coat of Harries, 
enclosed by a tier of Roman Doric columns. 
This room has an elegant bay-window, and a 
decorated ceiling ; further on the right is a 
spacious, but modern dining-room, built by 
Francis Blythe Harries, Esq. of Broseley Hall, 
who resided here many years. On the left of 
the entrance-hall is the principal staircase- 
lobby, forming a passage to the ancient 
dining-room. This room is fully and richly 

wainscoted, and has a handsome oak chimneypiece extending to a decorated ceiling, and 
exhibiting on its panels the Benthall and Cassey coats of arms. The staircase is also of oak, 
and elaborately worked, in the angle of which a panel tastefully, though somewhat 
fantastically carved, represents a leopard, the crest of Benthall. 



ITCHFORD HALL. This very curious and interesting example of the half- 
timbered houses of the time of Henry VIII. is situate in the hundred of 
Condover, and about six miles south of Shrewsbury. Its position is 
singularly felicitous, being placed in one of the pleasantest and most fertile 
parts of that most beautiful county, Shropshire. From Shrewsbury it is 
approached by a sort of " cross-country" road, passing through rich tracts 
of corn-growing land, up and down, in and out ; and the first view of its 
chequered walls and clustered chimneys is gained from a distance of about 
half a mile, looking up the well-wooded slopes of a rich valley of pasture land. The road 
traverses one side of the vale ; the Hall occupies a commanding position on the other, 
presenting to the tourist new combinations of beautiful scenery at almost every step he 
advances, all marked by a happy unity of impression. No railway comes near it, to break 
its quiet with the din and clatter of the too-busy world. 

The best general view of the house is from the public road, seen from a point nearly 
opposite the principal front : at a distance, the somewhat harsh contrast of the vivid 
interlacings of black and white is toned down into harmony with the general effect, still 
leaving point enough to give value to the full, rich masses of wood, by which three of its sides 
are encompassed. The house is highly picturesque ; the walls seem to be composed, for the 
most part, of strongly framed timber, raised on a substructure of stone and brick. The 
whole is in a surprising state of preservation for its age, and seems to have suffered but 
little from the progress of time, or the assaults of " improvers." In front of the Hall a 
small stream of water flows, passing under a bridge, on one side of which it has been raised 
by means of a weir. This serves a double purpose it gives the upper part of the stream a 
broad river-like appearance, and at the same time is an admirable defence to the extensive 
gardens, which skirt its banks for a considerable distance. The interior contains nothing 
peculiarly remarkable ; it has some good rooms, wanting in height, however, as is almost 
invariably the case in houses of this description. 


Pitchford is said to have derived its name from " a bituminous well, one of the greatest 
natural curiosities of the county, on the surface of which constantly floats a sort of liquid 
bitumen, in nature resembling that which floats on the Lake Asphaltites in Palestine."* 

The earliest possessors of Pitchford of whom we find mention, were a family who derived 
their name from the place ; of whom one Ralph de Pitchford, says Camden, " behaved 
himself so valiantly at the siege of Bridgnorth, that King Henry I. gave him Little 
Brug near it, to hold by the service of finding dry wood for the Great Chamber of the 
castle of Brug, or Bruggnorth, against the coming of his sovereign lord the king." 

The Hall is now the property and residence of the Earl of Liverpool, to whom it was 
devised in 1806 by Mr. Oteley, in whose family the estate had been for nearly four 
centuries. William Ottley Esq., as the name was then spelt, was high-sheriff for the 
county of Salop in the 15th of Henry VII., and again in the 5th of Henry VIIL, in 
whose reign the present Hall is supposed to have been built. Robert Ottley is mentioned 
as the lord of the manor in the time of Queen Elizabeth. During the Civil War, members 
of this family gained much distinction as active and zealous, but not always successful, 
adherents of the royal party. " Sir Francis Ottley was successively governor of the towns 
of Shrewsbury and Bridgnorth ; the latter he surrendered, after a siege in 1646, to the 
Parliamentary forces." In the articles of capitulation, still existing at Pitchford, it is 
stipulated, that " Sir Francis Ottley be permitted to retire with his family and baggage 
to his home at Pitchford, or at the Hay," another possession of the family. 

Close to the Hall, screened on all sides by thick plantations, is the church, a plain, neat, 
" respectable" structure, of great age. It contains some interesting monuments of various 
members of the Ottley family, and also " a fine and curious oaken figure of a Knight 
Templar, a Baron de Pitchford, a crusader, who was buried here." 

In October, J 832, Pitchford Hall was visited by her Majesty the Queen (then Princess 
Victoria) and her august mother, the Duchess of Kent ; " on which occasion," says the loyal 
and zealous county historian, " it was the scene of genuine Shropshire hospitality and 

* Hulbert's " History of Shropshire." 

IE aw 









t ONTACUTE. The village of Montacute is one of the most 
primitive and picturesque of the villages of England. 
It consists of a large Square, a Market-place, with its 
simple and beautiful School-house, an erection which dates so far 
back as the time of Henry the Seventh, a very rare and fine 
example in a remarkably good state of preservation, which formerly 
stood against a quaint old Market-house, now destroyed. The principal 
street consists of stone hovels, built in a rude style, but still retaining 
proofs that the comforts of the inmates were duly weighed and considered. 
The village and its vicinity are flourishing, in consequence of the ample employ- 
ment which the women obtain at glove-making, at which they are nearly all occupied 
in their own cottages. It is situated within four miles west of the town of Yeovil, 
and about the same distance south of Ilchester. 

Montacute derives its name from a conical hill (mons acutus) which overlooks the 
village, and on which is a round tower, com- 
manding an extensive vieAv of the Vale of 
Somerset, and the British Channel.* The pro- 
spect thence is, indeed, not only extensive but 
exceedingly magnificent ; including " the hills 
below Minehead and Blackdown, Taunton, Quan- 
tock Hills, Bridgewater Bay, and the coast of 
Wales ; Brent Knoll, the whole range of Mendip, 
with the city of Wells and Glastonbury Torr; 
Cheech and Knowl Hills, Alfred's Tower, and 
the high lands about Shaftesbury; also the 
Dorsetshire Hills, and Lambert's Castle near 
Lyme." At the foot, is the site of a Priory of 
black Cluniac monks, suppressed in the time of 
Henry the Eighth, of which only the Gatehouse endures; it is here pictured from a 

* This tower was erected by one of the family of the Phelips. 
The ascent to it is so gradual, that he is said, upon one occa- 

sion, to have visited the summit in his coach and four. The 
road winds round the hill. 


drawing by Mr. Richardson. It is somewhat extensive, and contains one room, little 
injured by time, with a good oak ceiling of peculiarly bold character. 

Montacute House, and the estates adjoining, have been for several centuries the 
property of the family of Phelips ; who originally " came over " with the Conqueror, and 
in consideration of military services were requited with large grants of lands in Wales, 
where they were long settled. In the fourteenth century they " migrated " into Somer- 
setshire, residing for many years at Barrington, not far from the present seat. The 
"spacious and noble building "was commenced in 1550, and finished in 1601, for Sir 
Edward Phelips, Knight, Queen's Serjeant, the third son of Sir Thomas Phelips. Its cost 
is said to have exceeded the sum of 19,500. It has since continued in the family of the 
founder, in the following line of succession. Sir Edward Phelips, Master of the Rolls. 
Chancellor to Henry Prince of Wales, and Speaker of the House of Commons, in the reigns 
of Elizabeth and James the First ; Sir Robert Phelips, his son, in the reigns of James the 
First and Charles the First ; Colonel Edward Phelips, during the Commonwealth, and in 
the reign of Charles the Second ; * Sir Edward Phelips, Knight, in the reigns of James the 
Second and William the Third ; his nephew, Edward Phelips, Esq., in the reigns of Anne 
and George the First ; Edward Phelips, Esq., in that of George the Second ; William 
Phelips, Esq., in that of George the Third ; and John Phelips, Esq., in that of George the 
Fourth ; the present possessor is a minor. But, unhappily, the Mansion, so long the scene 
of comparatively uninterrupted hospitality, has been, of late years, deserted ; stripped in 
a great degree of its internal decorations ; and left to the mercy of time. It presents, 
however, one of the finest and most interesting examples of the architecture of the period, 
yet existing in the kingdom; "combining simplicity of design with richness of ornament," 
" a magnificent specimen of the style of Elizabeth's reign." 

The form of the building is that of the Roman letter E ; a form which the founder 
is said to have adopted in compliment to his Royal mistress. It is built entirely of 
brown stone, found on the Estate. " The length of the Eastern or principal front," 
according to Mr. Shaw, (" Elizabethan Architecture,") is one hundred and seventy feet ; 
it is three stories in height, and is surmounted by gables and a parapet, crowned 
with pinnacles. Each story is marked by its entablature ; the bays of its numerous 
windows are divided by stone mullions ; and between each window of the uppermost 
story are recessed niches, containing a series of statues, the size of life, in Roman 
armour, resting on their shields." The wings, twenty-eight feet in width, are crowned by 
ornamental gables ; the space between them being occupied by a terrace ascended by a 
flight of seven steps. The Western Front we learn from the same source was greatly 

f The family suffered considerably, in consequence of their 
devotion to the royal cause during the unhappy reign of 
Charles the First ; and, afterwards, their loyalty being un- 

chilled by their losses. Colonel Richard Phelips united with 
Colonel Wyndham in secreting, and subsequently conveying 
out of the kingdom, the Second Charles. 


improved, in 1760, by the acquisition of an ancient screen, removed from Clifton House, 
near Yeovil ; " it is placed between the wings in front of the original edifice ; surmounted 
by finials, crowned with grotesque figures rising from turrets connected by a pierced 
parapet." The Court, upon the Eastern front, is " a fine and appropriate accessory " to 
this stately Mansion. It contains two picturesque square Pavilions, or Lodges, at the 
angles facing the building. The sides are formed by an open balustrade, having a 
small circular temple in the centre of each ; these latter are twenty-five feet in height, 
from the level of the Court. The whole composition exhibits great beauty. 

Over the arched entrances in the centre" compartment are the arms of the family 
argent, a chevron between three roses, gules; seeded or, barbel vert, with lions rampant as 
supporters. Over the principal door of the building is the following couplet, indicative 
of the hospitality of its high-born owners : 

Cijrougf) tijis tofte opening gate, 

None come too early, none return too late. 

This, however, is not the only inscription to convey their sense of duty to their guests. 
Over the North Porch is the following : 

Snfc gouvs mj? friend. 
And on one of the lodges, 

&23elcome tfje coming 

*peefc tfje parting guest. 

The interior is divided into suites of handsome and spacious apartments. The 
staircase is of the construction usual in the time of Elizabeth stone steps round a 
huge solid mass of stone. In the Hall, is a 
fine stone screen ; and, at the end, a bas- 
relief, four feet six inches in height, repre- 
senting the ancient custom of "skimmitting 
or stang-riding." * The Hall contains also 
a curious old chest the work, probably, of 
some Italian or French artist of the time of 
Henry the Eighth. The Rooms are gene- 
rally panelled with oak; but the ceilings 
throughout, and the staircase, are quite 
plain ; the walls of the principal apartments 
are, however, lined with finely-carved wainscotting to within a few feet of the ceiling 

* " Skimmitting, or, as it is called in the north of England, 
stang-riding, is still kept up in many parts of the kingdom, for 
the purpose of exposing to shame and ridicule, the man who 
has been guilty of cruelty or infidelity towards his wife." In 
the basso-relievo at Montacute, the wife, accompanied by a 

crowd of villagers, is represented bestowing a few sound blows 
with her shoe upon her faithless partner, and " the artist has 
with happy effect introduced a church in the back-ground, to 
intimate that certain vows and promises which had been there 
solemnly pledged ought to have been kept in remembrance." 


the intervening space being ornamented by rich plaster-work, which has a fine effect. 
The screen, which Mr. Richardson has pictured in the appended print, belonged originally 

to the entrance to the Dining-room, and was removed 
to its present position by one of the later proprietors 
of the Mansion.* 

Although the Mansion at Montacute supplies us 
with many subjects for illustration by the pencil, we 
have preferred to introduce a copy of the graceful 
and venerable School-house one of the most striking 
and interesting remains of a remote period, and one 
with which no other than agreeable memories can be 
associated. The initial letter is part of the sculpture 
of the western front. 

Unhappily, the Destroyer is busily at work about 

this fine old Mansion one of the grandest, most original, and most auspiciously 
situated of the few unimpaired structures of the reign of Queen Elizabeth by which 
the kingdom is still enriched. Although its present possessor is the direct descendant 
of its founder, and "the line" has been unbroken for nearly three centuries, it is 
now deserted. All its glories are of ancient dates : the " wide opening gate " gives 
admission to no gay revellers ; and the yet existing motto seems a solemn mockery 

2123elcome ttje coming 
Speeti ttje patting guest. 

* " It would appear from the introduction of the elegant felt even in the time of Elizabeth ; these screens could have 

screens or door-cases in the principal living rooms, that the been made only for warmth and comfort. They are beautifully 

cold draughts of air, caused by the long passages, the extent of painted, and their effect is very quaint and pleasing." C. J. 

the rooms, and the great size of the windows, must have been RICHARDSON. 





AVERS WALL CASTLE. The pretty and secluded village of 
Caverswall is seated in the centre of a rich level vale, 
through which runs the river Blithe, here, not far from 
its source, a narrow stream, which gradually swells into 
size and strength. The venerable Castle of Caverswall, 
one of the most striking, picturesque, and interesting 
remains of a distant age, towers above this pleasant and 
appropriately named streamlet, overlooking the broad valley, 
the whole of which it completely commands, and of which 
it was formerly the guardian and the glory. 

In the twentieth year of William the Conqueror, Caverswall was held of Robert de 
Stadford by Ernulfus de Hesding ; but in the time of Richard Coeur de Lion, one Thomas 
de Careswell was lord of this demesne, from whom it descended to Sir William de Cavers- 
well, Knight, most likely the same who Avas sheriff of Staffordshire towards the close 
of the reign of Henry III., and whose descendant, probably grandson, of the same name 
and title, in the latter end of the reign of King Edward II., built 
a large and strong stone castle here, surrounded by a deep moat. 
As additional security, when safety was worth a costly purchase, 
we are told he gave it the further defence of square turrets at the 
heads of extensive pieces of water. This is " the castel or prati-pile 
of Caverwell " of Leland's time. Of its founder, we know nothing 
more than is revealed to us by his marble monumental slab, now 
reduced to the level of the church-floor at the entrance into the 
chancel strange transition ! to be trodden on by every foot that 
passes. This " goodly castle," as Erdeswick terms it, in his time, 
about two hundred and fifty years ago, he tells us, " was lately in 
reasonable good repair, but is now quite let to decay by one Browne, 
farmer of the demesnes, which he procured (if a man might guess 
at the cause) lest his lord should take a conceit to live there, and 
thereby take the demesnes from him." Now, it is probable no remnant of this ancient 


Castle is extant, unless in the chiselled stones which give support to garden-hedges 
about the village. Still, the lower portions of the wall which surrounds the platform of 
the Castle, with its graduated buttresses, and perhaps also the foundations of some 
of the turrets, give indications of an architecture at least much anterior to the present 
building. We are inclined to refer this ancient wall to the period of the original 

The lordship descended from the Caverswells, who enjoyed it until the nineteenth of 
Edward III., when by the heir-general it passed to the Montgomerys, and subsequently 
to the Giffards, the Ports, the family of Hastings, Earls of Huntingdon, who were owners 
of it in the seventeenth century ; and, by purchase, to Matthew Cradock, Esq., whose 
father, we are told in a celebrated letter of Sir Simon Degge's, was a wool-buyer at 
Stafford. In the reign of James I., this latter proprietor, it is said, employed the skill 
of the celebrated Inigo Jones to erect the present castellated mansion. The site of this 
solemn fortress-like structure, enriched by the dark-grey tints of age, is the rock which 
gave foundation to Sir William de Caverswell's Castle. The grit-stone of which it is 
built has been excavated from the moat that surrounds the whole ; the same being the 
case no doubt with the materials of the earlier building, for the circumstance, as we 
shall see, is alluded to in the Latin lines on the founder's tomb. The Castle is placed 
upon an elevated quadrangular platform, which is defended by a curtain running 
along each side, having a number of graduated buttresses rising from the moat, and by 
an octagonal turret, with its base dipping in the fosse, at each angle. The pointed 
arched gateway, approached by a stone bridge, is flanked by an additional turret on 
each side, like the others, balustraded at the top. This balustrade formerly was carried 
round the top of the Castle also. Its removal in recent times has been injurious to 
picturesque effect; hence the artist has retained this proper mark of style in our 
lithotint. The quadrangle of the Castle is laid out in gravelled walks, shaded by fine 
hedges of hornbeam, and a beautiful flower-garden, exhibiting many of the gems of 
Flora's chaplet, and some remarkably fine specimens of Cotoneaster trained along the 
walls. The building itself is chiefly interesting as presenting the ideal of the great 
architect of the transition from the ancient castle to the baronial mansion. The keep 
may be said to be still retained in the lofty square tower, which overtops the building 
at its western end. Two great bays ascend, one on each side, to the top of the building, 
which break the plainness of the front, and afford additional light to the apartments. 
The numerous windows are all large, divided by deep mullions; and in a winter's 
evening, when most of the rooms are occupied, a distant spectator might conceive there 
was an illumination in the Castle. The rooms are plain, and afford nothing worthy of 
particular note. The square tower is chiefly occupied by staircases. The turrets have 
been converted into apartments of residence. Whilst around the whole, flow the dark 


yet clear waters of the moat, which expands on the western side into a small lake. This 
moat is supplied by a number of springs and a limpid rill that runs into it. Its outer 
margin receives the shade of some fine limes. As if in pointed contrast to all this 
panoply of defence, on the inner margin of the fosse there is seen a pretty little flower- 
border, occupying the recesses between the buttresses which support the platform. 

We have here an indication of the peaceful, unwarlike purpose to which this sombre 
fortress is now devoted. On the decease of Matthew Cradock, Esq., who built the present 
Castle, it came into the hands of his son, George Cradock, Esq., who died in 1643,* with 
whose descendants it remained only till 1655. From them it passed to Sir William Jolliffe, 
Knight ; and from him, by marriage with his daughter, to William Viscount Vane, of 
Ireland. It subsequently passed into the hands of the family of Parker, one worthy 
descendant of which house, Thomas Hawe Parker, Esq., resides at Park Hall, near the 
village, and still retains the manor. During the disastrous wars of the French Revo- 
lution, it was purchased for the retreat of a religious community from Ghent, in Belgium, 
the Benedictine Dames, who emigrated hither in 1811, having previously settled at 
Preston, in Lancashire. These ladies, in their antique black dresses and hoods, as they 
traverse the terraces on the platform of the Castle, or engage in the cultivation of 
their flower-gardens, give an air of surprising interest, of living reality, to this castellated 
mansion of other ages. They have erected a good-sized chapel on the eastern side of 
the house, in which is a large picture over the altar representing St. Benedict and St. 
Scholastica praying to the virgin ; and they devote much of their time to the purposes 
of education. On the opposite side of the moat, amidst the shade of surrounding trees, 
we perceive the final resting-place of the sisterhood. In this neat little plot is a number 
of tombstones, two of which are distinguished from the rest by bearing the cross and 
pastoral staff emblems of ghostly superintendence. They mark the graves of Lady 
Abbesses. One lay sister, now rapidly descending the vale of years, is the only 
religieuse who came over with the original refugees. 

* On a mural monument in the chancel of Caverswall 
Church, adjoining that of his father, which we have engraved, 
is the following singular inscription to his memory : 
" M.S. 


" George Cradock, Esq., (for his great prvdence in y 
common lawes well worthy to be beav-Clarke of y assizes for 
S r - Thomas Slingsby, Baronet, 
y Right Hon ble - Robt. Lord Cholmondely 
S r - John Bridgeman, Baronet, 

" But ! but ! to our grief, George Cradock is assavlted by 
death in y meridjan of his age, not far off from his Castle 
of Caverswal (lately bvilt, even to beavty, by Mathew 
Cradock, Esq., his father, who lies inter'd near this place). 

this Circvit), did take to wife y most amiable, most loving 
Dorothy, y davghter of John Savnders, Doctor of Physicke, by 
whom he had a Pair-royall of incomparable davghters, to wit, 
Dorothy, Elizabeth, and Mary. 

" It is easie to gvess that he lived in a splendid degree, if I 
shall bvt recovnt vnto you that 

( Dorothy } 

Maried < Elizabeth > Coheir. 
' Mary ) 

y cost of Dorothy, his obseqviovs wife, where he now rests 
(vnder the protection of an Essoine) vntil he shall be svm- 
mon'd to appeare at y last great and general Assizes." 
The Sir Thomas Slingsby, of Scriven, Bart., who married 

' And dying of y small pox y 16th of April, 1643, he tooke ] Dorothy, the eldest of this "pair-royal," was beheaded by 
himselfe to y private masion of this tombe, erected for him at oliver Cromwell. 


A doorway, now closed, formerly led from the Castle to the Church, which is close 
by. It is a spacious village church, dedicated to St. Peter, embosomed in a grove of 

sycamores, and presenting, like 
many others, indications of 
great antiquity indications 
which are almost overgrown 
Avith the additions and recon- 
structions of nearly every 
period since its foundation. The 
piers of the nave, which give 
support to a series of semicir- 
cular arches, from their plain- 
ness most probably belong to 
the Norman style. The deco- 
rated finds its representatives 
in the belfry arch, and the two 

aisles of the nave ; whilst the perpendicular is fairly displayed in the handsome eastern 
window of the tower. This tower and the aisles may be referred to the fourteenth 
century. The beauties and harmonies of the Avhole have been sadly marred, especially 
by the low flat ceilings, which extend from the tower to the chancel, in different stages of 
degradation. The nave contains some plain low oaken stalls, very ancient. Some pews 
also and the pulpit exhibit specimens of carving in oak in a pleasing style an illustration 
of Avhich forms our initial letter. The Church is rich in monuments. Beyond mentioning 
a fine evidence of Chantrey's skill, in a monumental figure to the memory of the Countess 
of St. Vincent, the lady kneels in an attitude of submissiveness to the inevitable 
stroke, her coronet being laid aside, beyond this mere mention, and that the family 
vaults and monuments of the Parker family, of Park Hall, the patrons of the living, 
exist here, Ave shall confine ourselves to the memorials of the tAvo founders of the 
ancient and more modern Castles of CaversAvall. At the entrance to the chancel, 
near to the foot of the pulpit stairs, is a massy slab of grey marble, laid in the floor. 
This is all that now remains of the monument of Sir William de CaversAvell, the 
builder of the Castle in the time of EdAvard II., about A.D. 1300. It has originally 
contained a large and elegant cross-fleurie, stretching over the entire length of the 
slab, a shield on each side, and an inscription running along the head and the two 
sides, all in inlaid brass. Erdeswick, the Staffordshire antiquar} r , Avho described it 
about tAvo hundred and fifty years ago, tells us that then the metal had been taken 
out. He adds, in a parenthesis, " such is the iniquity of this day ;" but yet he was able 
to perceive Avhat the letters were. These letters are in a fine character of the period, 
before black-letter was employed. Having carefully examined them, AVC were still able 


to decipher the whole, and now present a more correct reading than has ever before 
appeared, which, together with the accurate drawing of this rich and finished tablet 
(printed on the front page of this article) by our artist, Mr. F. Hulme, will, we trust, 
preserve a faint memory of the original. The inscription commences at an ornamental 
cross near the top on the left side, and ends at one opposite. 

+ 3Utc: facet: TOtUs: Je: Habmstoelle : mtles.+ 
Then follow these lines along the two sides : 

"ffiaatn: sttbctor: etam: fcomtfebs: fossis: que: cetnmto. 
Utbbs: Bans: operam: nbnc: clabtoor: in: toe: monbntento." 

Which Dr. Plot informs us was Englished thus : 

" Sir William of Caverswall, here lye I, 
Who huilt the Castle, and made the pooles by." 

In a spirit not altogether inaccordant with the original, another hand added this 
couplet, as Dr. Plot further says: 

" Sir William of Caverswall here you lye, 
Your Castle is down, and your pooles are dry." 

In the south wall of the chancel is a mural tablet in memory of Matthew Cradock, 
Esq., the founder of the present Caverswall Castle. In its style, this monument bears 
marks of the age in which it was constructed, the reign 
of Charles I. It is worthy of note, however, that, whilst 
the hand of man, as well as his foot, has continually 
warred against the monumental memorial of his great 
predecessor for more than five hundred years, without 
being able to obliterate the recognition of his name and 
merits, the inscription on that of Matthew Cradock, 
although not of half the antiquity, protected and even 
partially renewed, is now, in the main, irrevocably effaced. 
It has commenced in these terms, " Hie sepelitvr Matie 
Cr rmig." The rest is so greatly defaced, as only to 
allow us to make out that he married Elizabeth, the 
daughter of a Salopian esquire, and that his first-born 
child married the daughter of John Saunders, M.D., which 

agrees with the inscription on the mural tablet of George Cradock, Esq. Some lines 
in white paint below profess to have derived their origin from " I M. R E. de Stoke." 
Matthew Cradock, we believe, was a merchant, and was returned to Parliament, A.D. 
1640, 15 Charles I., for the City of London. His arms appear upon the tablet. 

At an early period of the contest between Charles and his Parliament, Caverswall 


Castle seems to have excited notice, and was garrisoned for the Parliament ; the family, 
no doubt, took this side. From the following entry of the Committee at Stafford, the 
widow of George Cradock, Esq., appears to have received some marks of respect amidst 
this military intrusion. " Dec. 4, 1643. It is ordered that Captain John Young shall 
forthwith repayre to Carswall House, and safely keepe the same for the use of the King 
and Parliament, until he shall have order to the contrarie. But he is to leave his horses 
behind him at Stafford ; he is likewise to use Mrs. Cradock with all respect, and not 
suffer any spoyle or waste made of her goods." " It is ordered that Mrs. Cradock shall 
have, towards the fortification of her house at Carswall, liberty to take, fell, cut downe, 
and carrie away any timber, or other materials, from any papist, delinquent, or 
malignant whatsoever." " March 1, 1643-4. It is ordered that Carswall be made 
unservisable." This last order does not appear to have been fulfilled to the letter ; for 
Caverswall Castle still remains unimpaired, sombre and venerable, to grace the verdant 
meads amid which it is situated to shelter the religieuses who have succeeded the 
refugees from the Low Countries and to show the pilgrim, who wanders through 
shady dells and by babbling brooks, catching the bland whisperings of the spirits of 
the past, that 

" Time 

Has moulded into beauty many a tower, 
Which, when it frown'd with all its battlements, 
Was only terrible." 





ERHAPS there are few districts so rich in historical 
interest as that in which is situated this 
venerable Mansion. The manors of Shug- 
borough, Sandon, Chartley with its ruined 
Castle Heywood, Blithfield, and Wolseley, 

are all within view ; Tixal Heath, with its abundant legends, is close 
at hand ;* and the ancient Town of Stafford is distant about three 
miles. Ingestrie, or, as now more commonly written, Ingestre, and 
anciently Ingestrent (from ing, in Danish, a meadow, that is, Trent 
Meadow), and in Domesday-book called Gestreon, was a part of the Great 
Barony of Stafford, and granted to Robert de Toeni by William the Con- 
queror, being then valued at 15*. 5d. In the reign of Henry the Second, 
it was held by Eudo, or Ivo de Mutton, or Mitton, who gave certain lands in Ingestre to 
the Priory of St. Thomas a Becket near adjoining, and then newly-founded : he afterwards 
became a lay-brother there, leaving his possessions to his son, Sir Ralph de Mutton, who 
had issue Adam and Philip, both knights. Sir Adam was also a benefactor to the 
fore-named convent, and had the presentation of a canon granted to him and his heirs 
for ever, to celebrate Divine Service for the souls of Sir Philip de Mutton, his brother, his 
own soul, and those of his ancestors and successors : he died in the fortieth year of the 
reign of Henry the Third, leaving by Isabella, his wife, Ralph, his son, who died without 
issue, and Isabella, his only daughter, married to Sir Philip de Chetwynd. After the 
death of Sir Philip de Mutton without issue, Philip de Chetwynd, son of Sir Philip 
and Isabella, became sole heir to that family (the Muttons) in his mother's right, 

* William Chetwynd, who was Gentleman Usher of the 
Chamber to Henry the Seventh, in the ninth year of that king's 
reign was barbarously and treacherously assassinated on Tixal 
Heath, near Ingestre, by Sir Humphrey Stanley, of Pipe, from 


motives of jealousy, having inveigled him from his house by a 
counterfeit letter. Pennant says : " It does not appear that 
justice overtook the assassin, although his widow perseveringly 
evoked it." 


and was possessed of Ingestre, &c., &c.; which, by a continued succession, descended 
to Walter Chetwynd, Esq., who, dying without issue, his estates devolved to Captain 
Chetwynd, his near relation, whose descendants were created Barons of Ingestre and 
Talbot. In 1784, John Chetwynd Talbot, who succeeded his uncle William in the barony, 
was raised to the dignity of an Earl of the United Kingdom by the style and title of Earl 
Talbot of Ingestre. 

His successor was his son, Charles Chetwynd, Earl Talbot of Ingestre, whose seat 
is still the noble old Hall of his ancestors. None of the nobles of the kingdom are 
more universally esteemed or respected. He has extensive estates in the immediate 
neighbourhood in his own holding; and is distinguished by his active promotion of 
agricultural improvements. The nobility and gentry of the surrounding district 
frequently assemble to witness the success of his experiments, and to participate in 
the hospitality of this noble "English farmer." His Lordship, however, has not 
altogether eschewed public life. For some time he was the Irish Viceroy. The manor 
and estate of Ingestre have recently received a large accession by the purchase of the 
Tixal Estate, from Sir Clifford Constable, by the present Earl Talbot. 

Ingestre Hall is pleasantly situated on a gentle declivity, sloping towards the 
river Trent, in a large and richly wooded park, which contains some remarkably fine 
beech and other trees.* The house has a stately and venerable appearance. It is in the 
style which prevailed during the reigns of Elizabeth and James the First having various 
projections, bay windows, and others with stone mullions. The north front was built 
by the present Earl, corresponding in character with the south front ; and like that 
also of brick and stone ; by which means several elegant rooms and a grand staircase 
have been added. The north side has a terraced flower-garden ornamented by 
fountains, a stone balustrade, &c., which add much to the elegance of this part of the 
building. The interior well agrees with the exterior consisting of large and well-propor- 
tioned apartments, the principal of which is the Library, an elegant room occupying 
the western portion of the Mansion, containing a valuable collection of Books, placed in 
handsome oak cases, with pilasters, &c., of the Corinthian order ; also a beautiful 
marble fire-place. The Billiard-room is wainscotted with oak, one-third of its height, 
containing a variety of grotesque heads in small panels. The grand Staircase has a 
massive oak railing of arabesque character. The interior, however, has been greatly 
modernised ; and its chief attraction to the antiquary will arise from the Family Portraits, 
which possess considerable interest. But the Mansion contains a rich treasure of 

* The fertility and other natural advantages of " the vale," 
and, we may believe, its picturesque beauties also, in remote 
times, determined the ancient nobility of Staffordshire to make 
it their chosen seat. This, and a lower portion of the river, 
are adorned with that graceful bird the swan. Ingestre, and 

the neighbouring royalties, have had " games of swans " imme- 
morially. Amongst the distinguishing marks on the beaks of 
the birds used in 1785 in the several royalties adjoining the 
Trent, enumerated by Dr. S. Shaw, we find that of " Earl 
Talbot, Ingestre ; two notches on the right side." 


historical and antiquarian lore : in the Library are preserved five Volumes in Manuscript, 
collected by Walter Chetwynd, Esq., consisting of Letters, Pedigrees, &c., &c.* 

The present Church of Ingestre is situate very near the Hall, on the S. E. side 
(the ancient Church was on the S.W. side of the house), and is a plain but handsome 
structure in the Grecian style of architecture consisting of a Tower ; a Nave, with side 
aisles ; and a Chancel ; the Ceiling of the Nave being much enriched with festoons of fruit, 
flowers, &c. and that of the Chancel with shields of arms, &c. The Nave is separated 
from the Chancel by an appropriate Screen, having the Royal Arms in relief over the 
Entrance, and, together with the Pulpit, &c., is of Flanders oak. The Chancel contains 
several mural Monuments of the Chetwynd Family, and Busts of the late Countess 
and a little Boy. There is an interesting mural Tablet for the late unfortunate 
Charles Thomas Viscount Ingestre, who was lost in a Morass, near Vienna, on the 
23rd of May, 1826, being twenty-four years of age ; it represents the extrication of 
his dead body. There is also a figure exhibiting Religion with a chalice in the 
hands. This is placed on a Monument to the present Earl's brother, the late Rev. John 
Talbot, Rector of Ingestre, &c. The Church has six fine Bells, and an Organ ; and was 
built by Walter Chetwynd, Esq., in 1673. A full account of the building and conse- 
cration of the Church is given by Dr. Plot, in his " Natural History of Staffordshire." f 

The neighbourhood of Ingestre is full of historical interest. On Hopton Heath (now 
inclosed), distant about a mile and a half, a bloody battle was fought on Sunday, the 

* Walter Chetwynd, Esq., of Ingestre, the celebrated anti- 
quary, was the son of Walter Chetwynd, Esq., and married 
Ann, daughter of Sir Edward Bagot, Bart., August, 1658. He 
introduced the learned Dr. Plot, from Oxford, into Stafford- 
shire, to write its Natural History. Dr. Plot exhibits in his 
work (1686) a Plan of Ingestre Hall, and gives an account 
of the rebuilding of Ingestre church by his patron. 

The first person who undertook to wnte upon the history 
and antiquities of Staffordshire was Sampson Erdeswick, Esq., 
of Sandon, near Ingestre, venerandse antiquitatis cultor maxi- 
mus, as Camden describes him ; i. e. an eminent encourager of 
venerable antiquity. He died in 1603, and was buried under 
a handsome monument, having his effigy, " cut to life," erected 
by himself in his lifetime, in Sandon church. His MS. papers 
fell into the hands of Walter Chetwynd. This latter gentle- 
man obtained in addition the collections of Mr. Ferrers, of 
Baddesley, and of William Burton, the Leicestershire historian, 
and brother of the Anatomist of Melancholy. To these he 
added very large collections of his own. All these MSS., upon 
the repairing of Ingestre Hall, were put in a box, for safety, 
by the Rev. James Milnes, rector, and were unfortunately lost. 
They were, however, subsequently found at Rudge ; but con- 
tinued in obscurity, till rediscovered at Ingestre, when they 
were placed in the hands of Dr. Stebbing Shaw, the learned 
and indefatigable historian of the county, whose premature 
decease unhappily interrupted his elaborate work. There is a 

good portrait of Walter Chetwynd, Esq., the antiquary, by 
Lely, at Ingestre Hall. 

t One member of the Talbot family, Charles Talbot (son of 
the Lord Chancellor), who died in 1733, made the tour of 
Europe with Thomson, the author of the "Seasons," to whom 
Lord Talbot was a liberal patron and kind benefactor. His 
poem on " Liberty," which was conceived during their travels, 
opens with an affectionate tribute of sorrow to the memory of 
his friend. 

" my lamented Talbot ! while with thee, 
The Muse gay roved the glad Hesperian round, 
And drew th' inspiring breath of ancient arts ; 
Ah ! little thought she, her returning verse 
Should sing our darling subject to thy shade ! 
And does the mystic veil from mortal beam 
Involve those eyes, where every virtue smiled, 
And all the father's candid spirit shone ? 
The light of reason, pure without a cloud ; 
Full of the generous heart, the mild regard ; 
Honour disdaining blemish, cordial faith, 
And limpid truth that looks the very soul." 

Thomson also composed a poem " To the memory of Lord 
Talbot," which is equally creditable to the Chancellor and 
the Poet, and reflects great honour on Lord Talbot's family, to 
whom it is addressed. 


19th of March, 1643, between the King's troops, commanded by Spencer Compton Earl of 
Northampton, and the Parliamentary Forces under Sir John Gell and Sir William 
Brereton ; in which the Earl, with six captains and about 600 soldiers, were all killed. 
Human bones and fragments of military weapons have been turned up by the plough on 
this spot. One of the most interesting of several ancient remains in the vicinity is 
that of Chartley Castle. It has been a ruin for more than a century. The Park contains 
a thousand acres, inclosed from the Forest of Needwood, and never submitted to the 
plough. It has long been inhabited by a noble herd of " wild cattle," descended, in a 
direct line, from the wild cattle of the country which roamed at large in ancient times over 
the Forest of Needwood probably a corruption of Neat's Wood, or the Wood of Cattle. 
Chartley Castle was one of the prison-houses of Mary Queen of Scots. On the 21st 
of December, 1585, she took her final leave of Tutbury, and was removed to Chartley. 
It was during her residence at the latter place, that what has been denominated 
" Babington's Plot," was matured ; which, on its discovery, led to the execution of 
no less than twelve persons engaged in it. The discovery of this plot, likewise, in which 
Mary herself was intimately involved, hastened the fate of the unhappy queen. It was 
whilst Mary was on horseback, enjoying the sports of the field, in this neighbourhood, 
that she received the messenger who communicated the discovery of her guilt. The 
announcement of the fatal intelligence which Sir Thomas Gorges conveyed, suddenly 
extinguished the fond expectations which had been so long cherished. She instantly 
directed her horse's head homewards ; but was not permitted to return thither. She was 
conveyed to Fotheringay the last sad scene of her eventful history. 



EST BROMWICH a village distant a few miles from busy 
Birmingham supplies a curious and interesting example 
of the half-timbered houses, of which many still remain 
in the Midland Counties of England. It is commonly 
known as " The Oak House," is situated on the borders 
of the great Staffordshire coal-bed, and is now surrounded 
by collieries, creating a dense and murky atmosphere, 
which almost hides the ancient mansion from sight. Yet 
the site was Avell chosen ; for at the period of its erection 
it commanded extensive views of a picturesque and fertile country, now absolutely 
covered with iron-works and other results of the traffic peculiar to the district. 
Far as the eye can reach, it encounters only the smoke and steam which indicate 
busy labour; the few trees that endure to grace the landscape are stunted and 
sickly, and even the fields seem never to have borne a coating of natural green. 
Nevertheless, although the eye may turn away unrefreshed from a scene which exhibits 
Nature expelled by Commerce, the mind will be cheered to know that in these 
unsightly mountain-heaps, " dug from the bowels of the harmless earth," originates 
the true supremacy of England. The coal-fields of Staffordshire and Warwickshire 
render available the gigantic discoveries which have made the present century 
already famous. Without their aid, science and manufacture could have achieved 
comparatively little ; it is by such auxiliaries only we can set at work the forge 
and the foundry, where 

" Incessant, day and night, each crater roars, 
Like the volcano on Sicilian shores : 
Their fiery wombs each molten mass combine ; 
Thence, lava-like, the boiling torrents shine ; 
Down the trenched sand the liquid metal holds, 
Shoots showers of stars, and fills the hollow moulds." 

The " Poet of Science " seems to have had in view the locality to which we 
refer; at least, to no part of England are his lines more strictly applicable. 


Little is known of the ancient possessors of the Oak House, notwithstanding that 
the direct descendants of the earliest occupants continued to inhabit it until towards 
the close of the last century. The only author who appears.- to have taken any note 
of them is the Rev. Stebbing Shaw, who in his " History of Staffordshire," under 
the head of West Bromwich * states, that the Oak House belonged for several 
generations to a branch of the respectable old family of Turton, of Abrewas, near 
Lichfield ; and the first mentioned in this parish was John Turton, in the freeholders' 
book, A. D. 1653. Amongst the inscriptions formerly in the ancient Church of 
St. Clement, here, was one to the memory of William Turton, of the Oak, gent., 
who died A. D. 1682 (son of that John), and Eleanor his wife, daughter of Robert 
Page, of Leighton, in the county of Huntingdon, who died A. D. 1696, setat. 61 ; and 
one also to John Turton, of the Oak, gent., the eldest son of the above William, 
who died December 6th, 1705, eetat. 45. This is the same John, no doubt, who, 
with William his brother and Sarah their sister, are mentioned in the will of Sir 
John Turton, of Abrewas, as his cousins. Either from the first mentioned John, 
or from another of that name settled at Rowley Regis, a few miles off, was, according 
to Shaw, descended the eminent physician Dr. Turton, of London, whose ancestors 
had for some years resided in an old house called "The Hall," at Wolverhampton. 
The house and estate afterwards came into the possession, by will, of a Mrs. 
Whylie, who left it to the present owner, J. E. Piercy, Esq., of Warley Hall : and 
it is now inhabited by his agent, Mr. Samuel Reeves. 

The general character of the building is 
that of the later years of the reign of 
Elizabeth ; this will be sufficiently apparent 
from the drawing of the north front, which 
supplies our principal plate. The groups of 
tall chimneys, and the minor details of the 
doors, windows, &c., are all of that age ; 
while evidence of its date is confirmed by 
the south or garden front (as will be seen 
by the accompanying vignette), built chiefly 
of red brick, and containing the pediments 
and square stone mullions of the period. 

Upon entering the house, through the 
porch, we reach a narrow passage, formed by a small room, abstracted from " the 

The village of West Bromwich is remarkable as the 
birthplace of Walter Parsons, porter to King James T., who 
appears to have been equally distinguished for extraordinary 
strength and equanimity of temper. His stature was but 

little above the common size ; yet such was the prodigious 
power of his arm, that he could easily " take up two of the 
tallest yeomen of the guard and carry them where he pleased, 
in spite of their attempts to free themselves from his iron grasp.'' 


Hall " the spacious hall of former times. At the termination of this passage a door 
leads into the present hall, of far more limited extent, from which a broad flight 
of stairs conducts to the- upper apartments. These apartments, however, having been 
long disused, exhibit the melancholy aspect of desertion and decay. The stairs 
consist of four flights, and the balusters of the whole are curiously carved ; the 
small pendant hanging from the upper flight, 
as seen from the first-floor landing, supplies our 
initial letter. On the ground-floor there are four 
of the rooms pannelled with oak, the chimney- 
pieces being carved in arabesques. 

The peculiar feature of this house, however, 
is the very curious timber turret or lantern which 
rises nearly from the centre of the roof, and has 
its principal frontage towards the north. It is 
square, and forms one small room, to which a 
subsequent addition appears to have been made. 

The parish Church (dedicated to St. Clement) 
is distant from the House about two miles. 
Modern " improvement " has been busily at work 

in mutilating and defacing it ; yet " ignorant churchwardens " have been unable 
to deprive it entirely of the venerable character it derives from age. 

From the little that remains of ancient work, the whole Church seems to have 
been built during the later period of the Decorated style of architecture, with here 
and there additional portions of a later date On the south side there is a small chapel 
but whether used as a chantry or not is uncertain, the date upon it being as Into 
as 1618. It is most probable that it Avas used as the burial-place of the Whorwoods ; 
an old family, who inhabited a mansion built on the site of the Priory of Sandwell. 
Avhich stood at a short distance from the Church. The Tower of the Church is 
square, of two stories, and has an octagonal turret on its northern side. The Font 
also is octagonal, Avith the sides pannelled, and containing shields. It stands at the 
Avest end of the north aisle. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of the Church are several old houses, which 
seem to belong to the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth centuries, and 
originally formed the village of West Brormvich, which at that period must have been 
a very inconsiderable place ; but, from its situation near the main-road through the 
mining district, and the rapid increase of coal and iron Avorks in its vicinity, it 
has become of considerable note ; the Avhole of the distance between the Oak House 
and the Church being thickly covered Avith houses, among Avhich are three new churches, 



several meeting-houses, and the other ordinary accompaniments of a modern town. 
Within about the distance of a mile, at a place where three lanes meet, is a wayside 
inn, bearing the sign of " The Stone Cross ; " of the cross which formerly existed 
there, barely a trace is left. 

Amongst the other timber houses in the immediate vicinity of Birmingham, 
there are but few remarkable for any peculiarity of construction ; such as still 
exist have been in nearly all cases subjected to the " improvements" which destroy 
early and valuable character ; perhaps the only exception is an old house, situated on 
the north side of the churchyard at Kingsnorton (a village in the county of Worcester), 
about five miles distant from Birmingham, which is still retained for the use of a 
Free School, founded there by King Edward VI., but which, from having a window 
at its east end, that clearly belongs to the decorated period of English architecture, 
was most probably used as a residence for the priest of the adjacent church. But 
although the neighbourhood is so deficient in good examples of ancient timber 
houses, there will be found several mansions worthy of observation ; we need mention 
only the names of New Hall, near the little town of Sutton Coldfield ; Castle 
Bromwich Hall, the seat of the Earl of Bradford, erected in 1580 ; the ancient 
Castle of Maxtoke, which remains, for the greater part, in good preservation ; and 
the magnificent pile of Aston Hall one of the finest and best preserved Halls 
yet existing in the Kingdom. 



HROWLEY HALL. IN the North-East corner of the County 
of Stafford there exists an elevated region of limestone 
hills ; one of which, the Bunster, rises to the height of 
twelve hundred feet above the level of the sea. Their 
scanty soil, pierced in many places by the naked rock, 
bears a rich verdure, which is cropped by numerous 
herds of cattle and sheep. The bottoms of the inter- 
vening valleys are occupied by clear streams, which 
dash along their stony beds, and give fertility to the 

various shrubs and trees growing upon their margins. In a concavity, about midway 
down one of these hills, stands the old Hall of Throwley. In the vale below, the 
superterranean or surface course of the river Manyfold winds its devious way. This 
stream, like its fellow, the Hamps, sinks into fissures of the rocks, and flows through 
caverns hid in the earth, for some miles, whilst the remaining portion of the waters, 
especially during floods, occupies the bed we have pointed out. The valley of the 
Manyfold, opposite Throwley Hall, is marked by an umbrageous wood, exhibiting a 
highly luxurious foliage of varied tints. 

This picturesque spot, environed by the neighbouring hills of such great altitude, 
was chosen for the foundation of a house at a remote period. At the time of 
Erdeswick, we find him recounting that " Throwley is a fair, ancient house, and goodly 
demesne ; being the seat of the Meverells, a very ancient house of gentlemen and of 
goodly living, equalling the best sort of gentlemen in the Shire." In the fifth year of 
the reign of King John, Oliver de Meverell was settled here. In the second of Edward 
the First, Thomas de Meverell married Agnes, one of the five daughters and co-heirs of 
Gerebert de Gayton. In a deed given at Fredeswall, now Fradswell, another manor 
of the Meverells, in the seventeenth year of Edward the Third, we find the name of 
Thomas de Meverell, Lord of Throwley. The following inscription occurs on an alabaster 


monument in the south aisle of the chancel of Ham Church, in which parish Throwley 
is situated : " Here lyeth y" bodies of Robert Meverell Esqv' & Eliz : his wife, Davghter 

of S r Tho : Fleming Kni< & Lord Cheife Ivstice of y e 
Kings Bench, by who he had issve only one davghter, 
who maried Tho : Lord Cromwell, Visconte Lecaile ; w ch 
Robert died y e 5th of Febr y an 1626 & Elizab th departed 
y e 5th of Avgvst 1628." Upon a slab are placed the 
effigies of this Robert, the last male of the Meverells, 
and Elizabeth his wife, in the magnificent ruifs and 
other costume of the period the husband wearing a 
vast pair of boots \vith spurs on them, the former 
falling in thick wrinkles from the ankle to the knee, and 
terminating in a peak about the middle of the thigh. 
In a recess in the wall above is the kneeling figure 
of their daughter and heir, Lady Cromwell, wearing 
her coronet, and her four children by her. There are shields of arms emblazoning 
those of Meverell, viz., argent, a griffin segreant sable, armed gules, with the alliances 
enumerated ; and above the tomb is suspended a helmet having a pointed visor. We 
are enabled to trace this heiress of the ancient House of Meverell to her last 
resting-place, for in the floor near the altar in Fradsivell Church is a flat stone, 
inscribed, "Dame Cromwell." And on an old Tablet in the Chancel may still be 
read : " lana Cromwell' : Ex nobilibus Familys Cromwellorum et Meverillorum." 1647. 
From the family of Lord Cromwell, Viscount Lecaile, and first Earl of Ardglass, 
in Ireland, Throwley subsequently passed to Edward Southwell, the last Baron de 
Clifford; and was sold by him in 1790 to Samuel Crompton, Esq., whose son, Sir Samuel 
Crompton, Bart., of Wood End, near Thirsk, is now the proprietor of it. The Hall is 
occupied by a worthy family of the name of Phillips. 

The "fair ancient house of Throwley" has undergone many mutations since the 
days of Erdeswick. It still, however, presents a diversity of outline which corresponds 
admirably with the imposing site it occupies. It is built of the limestone of the 
neighbourhood, quoined with larger gritstones ; and its walls bear a very time-worn 
appearance. On the Eastern side, its gables, large bayed window of many lights, 
divided by stone mullions, terminating in depressed arches, and its strong square tower, 
carry us back to the Sixteenth Century the period of its erection. Whether it was the 
work of Robert, the last male of the House of Meverell, or one of his predecessors, 
we are not enabled to ascertain by any positive evidence; yet there is little doubt 
the latter surmise is most correct. On the western side of the House there formerly 


stood a large Chapel, with a lofty ceiling to the roof; a stone of which, still preserved, 
bears the initials " F. M.," most likely pointing to the founder of the entire structure. The 
little turret contains a circular stone stair, that conducts to the roof of the tower, the 
leads of which bear many a mark of visitors long since departed most of them to an 
eternal home. The view here, as it takes in a large reach of the valley in both 
directions, and Castern on the opposite hill, is very fine. The principal entrance to the 
House of Throwley has been on the north, and leads first to a small Entrance-Hall, and 
next, to the great Hall ; which in the strange transmutations it has undergone, retains 
only a portion of its wainscot and the massive beams of oak that support the ceiling. 
This Hall is lighted by the lower window in the large bay to the left of our litho-tint. 
A fine room of equal size, above, entered by a pair of oaken folding doors, has been richly 
finished, its ceiling still bearing a beading that has been gilt, disposed in an elegant 
device of octagons and stars. This chief apartment has had a large bay-window, 
containing two rows of six lights each, to the South, as well as the Eastern bay apparent 
in the engraving. All these windows are rendered secure by upright bars of iron, 
bearing cross-bars at short intervals. They have formerly contained some stained glass, 
the only remains of which, the arms of Lord Thomas Cromwell quartering the sable 
griffin segreant of the Meverells, are now placed in the neighbouring farm-house of 
Mr. Parramore. An upper wainscotted room in Throwley Hall still retains an 
appropriate memorial of its former lordly occupants in the armorial bearings of the 
House of Ardglass, elaborately carved in high relief in oak, now enriched by the tints of 
age, with the supporters, two fierce winged bulls. At a short distance behind the house 
stands a stately pile of ancient stabling, two lofty stories in height, topped with a high- 
pitched roof. The entrances are so tall, that we might conclude the lords and dames of 
other days had mounted their steeds before they issued to the chase or other amusements 
among which we may presume that of falconry would be no infrequent pastime amid 
these wild hills. 

Of the ancient owners, the Meverells, almost the only additional historical notice 
we can regain, is, that Arthur Meverell of Throwley was the last Prior of Sutbury. 
At the period of the Dissolution, A.D. 1538, he, together with eight monks, surrendered 
the Priory, with all its possessions, into the hands of Henry VIII. ; the original deed 
still remaining in the Augmentation Office, with the signatures of the Prior and 
brotherhood, and the common seal of the Convent attached. In consideration of this 
surrender, Arthur, the Prior, had an annuity of fifty pounds. 

Besides the remarkable natural phenomenon before alluded to, of the disappearance 
of the rivers Hamps and Manyfold in this vicinity, the vast caverns in the limestone 
rocks present to our notice objects of great interest. One of these, within a short 



distance of Throwley, has long been distinguished by the name of "Thor's House." 
Both rivers and caves are happily alluded to by the poet : 

" Still the nymphs emerging lift in air 
Their snow-white shoulders and their azure hair ; 
Sail with sweet grace the dimpling streams along, 
Listening the shepherd's, or the miner's song ; 
But when afar they view the giant cave, 
On timorous fins they circle on the wave, 
With streaming eyes, and throbbing hearts' recoil, 
Plunge their fair forms, and dive beneath the soil." 

By following the valley from Throwley about two miles, we reach the beautiful 
gardens of Ilam Hall, its ivy-covered Church, and the village itself. Passing over 
the chaste productions of modern art crowded into this graceful spot, which is 
equally marked as the opening, round the base of the mighty Bunster, of the most 
romantic portion of Dovedale, we can scarcely refrain from noticing, as we depart, 
the two fragments of ancient crosses, covered with sculpture forming rude devices, 
in the churchyard ; the curiously-figured Norman font ; and the plain but handsome 
altar-tomb in the Church, which is pierced at the sides with large quatrefoils, and 
bears the designation of " Bartram's Tomb." This latter attracted Dr. Plot's attention, 
who referred it to St. Bertelline. He was the son of a king, and a hermit, who is 
related to have lived on an island where the present town of Stafford is situated, 
till he was disturbed, when he removed into some desert mountainous place, where 
he ended his life. Plot has concentrated 

" Tradition's dubious light, 
That hovers 'twixt the day and night, 
Dazzling, alternately, and dim, " 

upon the wild hills and dells which abound round Throwley, Ilam, and Dovedale. 
He enumerates, as corroborative testimony, this tomb, which he considers may have 
been renewed, as undoubtedly it must have been if it have reference to the legend ; 
a well, and an ash tree near it, on the western side of Bunster, towards the base ; 
all of them being then and still popularly appropriated to St. Bertram. St. Bertram's 
ash has been cut down in the memory of many living in the village ; whilst the 
water of St. Bertram's Well, " clear as diamond-spark," still rills out of the base 
of the mighty hill. 



KENTHAM, the home or settlement on the Trent, has been a 
village since the days of the Saxons, who adopted this fertile 
nook on the banks of a beautiful stream as a fit abode for 
man. Here, in this well-selected spot, they were led by their 
religious impulses to found an Abbey, over which presided no 
less a personage than Werburg, daughter of the ferocious Wul- 
phere, king of Mercia, whose palace was hard by, at Berry-Bank, and whose wicked 
murder of his two sons, Wulfard and Rufin, on suspicion of their conversion to Christianity, 
was perpetrated at Bursson and at Stone, where subsequently religious houses were erected 
as memorials of their martyrdom. St. Werburg, for she was canonized, and was, moreover, 
sister to King Ethelred, died at Trentham or at Hanbury, in the year 683, was buried at the 
latter place, and her body was in the year 875 removed to Chester Cathedral, where the rich 
decorated stone case of her shrine now forms the bishop's throne. Of the Saxon abbey of 
Trentham no records remain ; of its " ancient glories " there exists not a trace. 

In the time of King Stephen, 
Ranulph, the second of the great 
Earls of Chester who bore that name, 
refounded the monastery of Trent- "; 
ham for canons of St. Augustine. In 

the present church, which closely 
adjoins to Trentham Hall, and which, 
by the munificence of the Duke of 
Sutherland, has been within these 
three or four years carefully and ju- 
diciously restored in every part, under the charge of Mr. Barry, we have still some slight but 
interesting remains, reaching back nearly to the time of its foundation. These consist of the 


tall, round, Norman piers of the nave, with their quaint capitals, and the bold and lofty 
pointed arches to which they give support. 

The appended woodcut exhibits the in- 
terior of the church the screen, of carved 
oak, being one of very considerable beauty. 

At the Dissolution, the Monastery had 
only seven religious, and was granted by 
King Henry VIII. in 1539, to Charles 
Brandon, duke of Suffolk. It afterwards 
came into the possession of the Levesons, a 
Staffordshire family of great antiquity, seated 
at Willenhall. Nicholas Leveson, lord-mayor 
of London, died in the year that Trentham 
was granted to the Duke of Suffolk. His 
great-grandson, Sir John Leveson, left two 
daughters only, co-heiresses ; one of whom, 
Frances, by marrying Sir Thomas Gower of 
Sittenham, carried Trentham and other extensive possessions into this ancient Yorkshire 
family, which dates from the Conquest. Sir John Leveson-Gower was elevated to the peerage 
in 1702-3, as Baron Gower of Sittenham. His son John, the second Baron, was constituted 
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, and was repeatedly one of the Lords of the Regency during 
the absences of George II. on the Continent. In 174*6 he was created Viscount Trentham 
of Trentham, and Earl Gower. He died in 1755, and was buried at Trentham. He was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Granville, the second Earl, who was Member of Parliament 
for the city of Westminster. On the occasion of his appointment as one of the Lords 
of the Admiralty, his re-election was strongly opposed by Sir George Vanderput, who was 
defeated by a small majority. In consequence, a scrutiny ensued ; and there occurred 
several riotous proceedings recorded in the journals of the time. He filled the high offices 
of Lord Privy Seal, Lord Chamberlain, and Lord President of the Council. He was 
installed Knight of the Garter, and created Marquis of Stafford in 1786. His eldest son, 
George Granville, also a Knight of the Garter, married the late estimable Countess of 
Sutherland in her own right, and was created Duke of Sutherland in 1833. This peerage, 
according to some of the Scottish writers, is the most ancient of any in North Britain. 
The Duke did not long survive to enjoy his new dignity, but died in the same year, carrying 
with him the sincere regret of his numerous tenantry. The latter, to testify their respect 
for His Grace's memory, commissioned Sir Francis Chantrey to execute a colossal statue of 
their noble landlord, which occupies a neighbouring height of great elevation, immediately 
in front of Trentham Hall across the lake, and forms a very conspicuous object in the 


surrounding scenery. Of the present noble possessor of the title, George -Granville- 
Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, the second Duke of his family, it will not be necessary to add 
much. After sitting in the Commons for Staffordshire, he was summoned to the House of 
Peers in the lifetime of his father, as Earl Gower, and is distinguished for the gracious 
dignity with which, during the whole of his career, he has sustained the honours of so many 
ancient and noble families, concentrated, as it were, in his own person. 

To the Levesons we may be allowed to recur. Sir Richard Leveson was distinguished as 
a naval commander. He is considered to be the subject of that fine old plaintive ballad, 
" The Spanish Lady's Love," which relates the woes of a captive maid, " by birth and 
parentage of high degree," at being about to be separated for ever from her detainer 

" Full woe is me, 

let me still sustain this kind captivity ! 
* * * * 

My heart in prison still remains with thee ! " 

for he accompanied the Earl of Nottingham, in 15Q6, in his expedition against Cadiz, when 
he was twenty-seven years of age. He was married to the daughter of this famous Earl, 
who was the Lord High Admiral and Commander in Chief of the English fleet which defeated 
the so called " invincible " Spanish Armada. Sir Richard Leveson, who was in this engage- 
ment as well as many others, in 1601 was made Vice- Admiral, and died early in life in 
1605. In the Collegiate Church at Wolverhampton a noble bronze statue, richly gilt, 
supported by a stately monument in black marble, was erected to his memory ; by which 
were two brass plates, the one inscribed with the chief events of his life, registered at length 
in Latin, terminating in these words " E vita pie discessit 
sine prole, sed non sine magno multorum luctu, auro dignus, 
aere contentus ;" and the other in English. He was succeeded 
by Sir Richard Leveson of Trentham, Knight of the Bath, who 
erected this splendid memorial to the Admiral's fame. It was 
executed by Le Sueur for 300/., and the original contract in 
French is still preserved at Trentham. During the contest 
between Royalty and the Parliament, this bronze effigy was 
ordered by the Committee of Sequestrations at Stafford to be 
taken away and cast into cannon ; but by the timely interposition 
of Lady Leveson, the Admiral's widow, it was redeemed for a 
sum of money, and deposited in Lilleshall Church till the strife 
was over. The marble monument being destroyed, it now occu- 
pies a niche in the church at Wolverhampton. A copy of the 
effigy is placed in a recess in the court-yard at Trentham Hall of which we give an illustration. 
The above Sir Richard Leveson, Knight of the Bath, was member of parliament for the 



county of Salop, and afterwards for Newcastle-under-Lyme, and was devoted to the cause of 
Charles I. He made his residence at Trentham, "being accounted one of the best house- 
keepers and landlords in the county." In consequence of his adherence to the royal cause, 
his property was sequestrated, for which he compounded by the payment of more than 
6000/., the largest composition obtained. There remains a letter from him to the Governor 
of Shrewsbury, which strikingly indicates the distresses sustained, by persons of distinction 
even, during those troubled times : 

(C Or 

" Since the unhappy surprise of Stafford by the rebelles, the place where I am is not safe, either 
for myself or my goodes, and therefore I have sent 2 wagons loaded with some household stuffe, which I 
desire, with your dispensac'on, may bee received into your towne of Shrewsbury, into a roome which I have 
longe reserved in myne owne handes for this purpose against a tyme of neede ; and that to this effecte you 
will please to give order unto your watch for free passage to and fro, whereby you will oblige mee more and 

more to remayne 

" Yo r ever affectionate frende, 

" Lilleshall Lodge, 16 May, 1643. <, -^ LEVESON." 

" To my muche respected frende, 
S>- Francis Oteley, Kt. 

Governour of Shrewsbury e. Haste these." 

Sir Richard Leveson built the old hall at Trentham in 1633, two views of which are 
given in Dr. Plot's singular "Natural History of Staffordshire." He died in 1661. His 
widow, Lady Catherine Leveson, was a great benefactress to the parish, and died at 
Trentham in 1678. 

The present Hall, previous to the recent most happy and successful " transformation " 
under the direction of Mr. Barry, was built on the model of Buckingham House, in 
St. James's Park. It has now become, by the addition of the semicircular colonnade, rich 
carriage porch surmounted by the ducal arms, and baronial tower, an imposing and stately 
mansion, enriched with much diversity of outline. 

A massy structure near the Hall was erected by the late Marquis of Stafford as a family 
mausoleum, in the Egyptian style ; the grounds around it being planted with various species 
of yew and other sombre plants, of a lofty, pointed, and pyramidal form. The ponderous 
architecture, the deeply-tinted foliage and heavenward aspect of the evergreens, form most 
appropriate emblems, both of human frailty and of the brighter hopes of the Christian. 

The park is marked by the unrestrained native beauties of the neighbouring wood of 
oaks, " wild above rule or art," and by the river Trent expanding into a goodly lake : 

" A gentle stream, 

Adown the vale its serpent courses winds, 
Seen here and there through breaks of trees to gleam, 
Gilding their dancing boughs with noon's reflected beam." 



ELMINGHAM HALL may be classed among the most 
remarkable and interesting edifices in the Kingdom ; 
for, although it has undergone many changes, and been 
subjected to a variety of " improvements," the leading 
characteristics of the ancient structure are retained ; 
it still exhibits a connecting link between the strong- 
castles of the old Barons, and the embattled mansions 
which succeeded them. The Hall is distant about 
eight miles from the venerable town of Ipswich. The 
Park contains about five hundred acres, and is largely 
stocked with deer. The Entrance-gate which forms 

the initial letter to this Chapter is placed between two Lodges modern, but in 
admirable keeping with the old House. An Avenue, arched by magnificently grown 
trees, conducts to the South 
Front of the Mansion ; in which 
is the principal Entrance, ap- 
proached by a Bridge thrown 
across the Moat. The Moat en- 
compasses the building ; which 
is surrounded also by a Terrace. 
Both are kept in excellent re- 
pair; and the former is well 
supplied with fish. The Draw- 
bridges are maintained in all 
their primitive formality, and 
are, we understand, even to this 
day, raised every night. The 
appended print exhibits the pic- 
turesque interior of one of the two " Gate-houses," in which these ancient appendages 


still remain, showing also the rude machinery by which it was elevated or depressed. 
It is an object now very rarely encountered: one of the most impressive records of 
" the state " (using the term in its double sense) in which our ancestors lived keeping 
perpetual watch and ward. All praise be to the existing Lord of this Mansion, who has 
taken especial care to prevent Time from destroying so peculiar a relic of a remote age. 
The present representative of the Tollemaches John Tollemache, Esq. has indeed 
manifested continual zeal to protect from injury the seat of his ancestors restoring 
with judgment, skill, and taste, where injuries have resulted from years, but so as in no 

degree to impair its original character; 
neither adding to, nor taking from, its 
early and " fair " proportions. 

Notwithstanding these solemn tokens 
of gone-by days, so intimately associated 
with times of peril, the external appear- 
ance of the building is peculiarly light 
and graceful a character which it derives, 
chiefly, from four large Bay Windows, with 
projecting cornices and embattled para- 
pets ; Gables profusely ornamented with 
richly wrought finials ; and a multiplicity 
of Chimneys similarly enriched, with reti- 
culated and indented mouldings. The 
structure is quadrangular. The Court- 
yard, with its several dependent buildings, 
has been restored with remarkably good 
taste and imposing effect. The Eastern 
Entrance to these buildings is here pic- 
tured. Crossing this Court, the Hall is reached*; the State Apartments are limited 
to the Western Front. They have been arranged with greater care to comfort than 
to Baronial grandeur ; due attention has been paid, however, to the "furnishing," and 
the taste of the Tudor age harmoniously prevails throughout the Mansion. Until 
very lately, the Hall had been completely deserted by the family, and was rapidly 
falling to decay. When it became the residence of the present proprietor, it was 
completely renovated ; the Garden or West Front, which had become dilapidated, 

* Over the entrance of the Porch leading to the Great Hall 
from the Court Yard, is a shield cut in stone, with these 
seven quarterings : 

1. Tollemache, Argent, a Frett Sable. 

2. Joyce . . Argent on a Chevron Gules, 3 escallops, Or. 

3. Joyce . . Or, a Lion rampant, Azure armed Gules. 

4. . . Gules, a Fesse between 3 buckles, Or. 

5. Visdeliea . Argent, 3 Wolves' heads, couped Gules. 

6. Curzon . . Ermine a bend cheeky, Argent and Sable. 

7. Peche . . Argent, a Fesse between 2 Chevrons Gules. 


having been entirely rebuilt. The Hall and several of the Apartments are adorned 
with Portraits of the ancient and noble Family ; among them are some fine paintings 
by Lely, Kneller, and Reynolds. 

A relic of exceeding interest is contained in one of the rooms. It is the Lute which 
Queen Elizabeth presented to an infant scion 
of the House, to whom her Majesty stood 
Godmother. It has the date, 1580, and 
the inscription, " Cymbalum Deca chordon." 
It is preserved in a glass-case, which also 
encloses a variety of rare and curious coins ; 
and in the same chamber is a spinette 
believed to have been once the property of 
the Virgin Queen. 

The very ancient Family of Tollemache 

resided for many generations at Bentley in Suffolk. In their old Manor House there 
was "to be seen until lately," (within the present century, perhaps), the following 
inscription : 

S23i)en aSStlltam tfje ffloncjuetot reignrtr totrt) great fame, 
Uentlj) teas mj> seat, ani Collemaeijc toas mg name. 

They boast their descent from Tollemache, a Saxon Lord of Bentley and Stoke 
Tollemache in Oxfordshire, in the sixth century. In the Domesday Book, the name is 
written Toolmag, and subsequently Thalemache, Tolemache, Talmage, Tallmash, and 
Tollemache. For nearly thirteen hundred years, the Family has dwelt in Suffolk county, 
flourishing in uninterrupted male succession, until so recently as 1821, when, by the 
death of the late Earl of Dysart, the title became extinct, and with it the direct male 
line of the long famous race. They acquired the rich estate at Helmingham by the 
marriage of Lionel Tollemache, of Bentley, Esquire, with Edith, daughter and sole 
heiress of William Joyce, of Crekes Hall, in Helmingham, who in the first year of the 
eighth Henry was found, by requisition, to hold the Manor of Bentley by knight's service. 
He served the office of High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in the fourth year of the 
same reign. By this Lionel Tollemache, Helmingham Hall was built. He died in the 
early part of the reign of Edward the Sixth, and was succeeded by his son, Lionel 
Tollemache, Esq., who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, who, during her progress 
through the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk in 1561, honoured him with her presence at 
Helmingham Hall, on August 14th and four following days, " where she was entertained 
with great splendour and hospitality." During the visit, Her Majesty stood Godmother 
to her Host's eldest son, Lionel : to commemorate this event, she presented to him, as we 
have stated, a Lute, still preserved as an heir-loom in the Family. 



His son, the first Baronet, was advanced to the dignity by James the First, in 1611. 
He died at Helmingham on the 5th of September, 1612, and was buried there on the 
same day (in the Parish Register the interment is entered, " Et eodem die sepultus fuit)." 
Helmingham Hall continued in his male descendants until the death of Wilbraham 
Tollemache, Earl of Dysart, in 1821*, when it devolved upon his sister Louisa, Countess 
of Dysart, and upon her death in 1840, to the present proprietor, John Tollemache, Esq., 
M.P. for North Cheshire, eldest son of the late Admiral Tollemache, grandson to Lady 
Jane Halliday, sister to Lionel, fifth Earl, and Wilbraham, sixth and last Earl of Dysart. 

The Earldom of Dysart came to the family by the marriage of Sir Lionel Tollemache, 
Bart., with the Lady Elizabeth Murray, eldest daughter and heiress of William Murray, 
first Earl of Dysart ; upon the death of her father she succeeded to the title. Sir 
Lionel died in 1669, and was buried with great pomp at Helmingham on the 25th 
of March, in the same year. The Countess married secondly at Petersham, in Surrey, 
February 17, 1671-2, to John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale, and Knight of the Garter. 

The Tollemaches although classing amongst the most ancient families of the 
realm, and for centuries preserving an unbroken link appear never to have been 
very emulous of distinction. The name scarcely appears upon the Roll of Fame : 
neither in the Senate nor at the Bar have they achieved for it high repute ; nor does 
it occupy a conspicuous place in the annals of war of any period from the Conquest 
down to the existing agef. 

In the immediate vicinity of the Hall, are several primitive and highly picturesque 
Cottages, many of which are of a date coeval with that of the Mansion : and the very 
ancient and venerable town of Ipswich is inconceivably rich in architectural antiquities. 

* During the lifetime of this Earl, old English hospitality 
was kept up in a most primitive style, whenever he was 
residing at the Hall. The tenants and tradesmen employed by 
his Lordship were allowed to visit the Hall whenever they 
pleased, and many yet living remember with grateful pleasure 
the entertainment afforded them there. 

t The exception should, however, he made in favour of 
General Thomas Tollemache. In the Church, there is a sarco- 
phagus of white marble, in which stands, upon a .pedestal, 
a bust, and behind it an obelisk of reddish marble, surrounded 
by military trophies. On the face of the sarcophagus is this 
inscription : " Thomas Tollemache, Lieutenant-General (de- 
scended of a family more ancient than the Norman Conquest,) 
second son of Sir Lionel Tollemache, Bart., by his wife, Elizabeth 
Murray, Countess of Dysart in her own right. His natural 
abilities and first education were improved by his travels in 
foreign nations, where he spent several years in the younger 
part of his life, in the observation of their genius, customs, 
politics, and interest ; and in the service of his country, abroad 
in the field, in which he distinguished himself to such advantage 
by his bravery and conduct, that he soon rose to considerable 

posts in the Army. Upon the accession of King William 111. 
to the Throne, he was made Colonel of the Coldstream 
Regiment of Foot Guards, and soon after advanced to the rank 
of Lieutenant-General. In 1091, he exerted himself with 
uncommon bravery in the passage over the river Shannon, and 
the taking of Athlone, in Ireland, and in the battle of Aghrim. 
In 1693, he attended the King to Flanders ; and at the battle 
of Landen, against the French, when His Majesty himself was 
obliged to retire, he brought off the English Foot with great 
prudence arid success. In 1694, he was ordered by the King 
to attempt the destroying of the harbour of Brest in France ; 
but on his landing at the head of six hundred men, he was so 
much exposed to the enemy's fire, that most of his men were 
killed, and himself shot through the thigh, of which wound 
he died a few days after. Thus fell this brave man, extremely 
lamented, and not without suspicion of being made a sacrifice, 
in this desperate attempt, through envy of some of his pre- 
tended friends ; and thus failed a design, which, if it had been 
undertaken at any time before the French were so well 
prepared to receive it, might have been attended with success, 
and followed with very important effects." 


HELMINGHAM CHURCH stands by the south side of the Park. The Tower was 
built in 1487, as appears by the copy of an agreement now in the Church chest, 

between " John Talmage, Esquier, 
Maistress Elizabeth, his wyff, Ed- 
mund Joyce, Gent., John Wythe, and 
William Holme on the one part, and 
Thomas Aldrych, of North Lopham, 
Mason, on the other, for thirty 
pounds." It is not known by whom 
the Church was built ; but in 1258, 
Dame Margaret Creke, who founded 
the Nunnery of Flixton, near Bungay, 
presented to it ; and the Prioress and 
Nuns of Flixton presented to it till 
1312, when she exchanged the pa- 
tronage for that of Flixton, with the 

Bishop of Norwich; from that time the Bishops presented to it till the lleformation, 
when the Crown claimed and has presented to it ever since. It is dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary. About a foot and a half from the ground, on the south side of the 
steeple, carved in stone letters of a foot high, is the following inscription, in old English 

letters : 

" tanbit air itjjtra, 0irgo, jmcrpcnt birgub ftssr. 

The Steeple is a square tower of Flints, embattled on the top : on the south side are 
the arms of Tollemache three shields of the date 1513, when it was built. It is 
supported by four buttresses, all standing diagonally. On the west side, near the 
ground, was an inscription, now gone. 

The Nave of the Church is of the date of the fourteenth century, and contains 
a fine South Door of the then prevalent style of architecture. The "Windows, as 
well as the Roof, are of a later age probably about 1510. The Chancel is quite 
modern, but is now undergoing alterations and repairs ; the result of which will be. 
to assimilate it with other parts of the venerable building. In reference to this matter, 
also, high praise is due to the present proprietor of Helmingham, inasmuch as he is 
removing many of the blots left upon the sacred edifice by the bad taste or heedless 
indifference of his predecessors. 

Both the Chancel and Nave are crowded with monuments commemorating the 
heroic deeds of members of the Family of Tollemache. The most remarkable and 
interesting fills nearly the whole of the southern side of the nave ; and it is so lofty, that 
part of the roof has been displaced to make room for it. It contains, in niches, four 



figures of men kneeling with their hands clasped and erect before them, the three first 
in a row, the fourth above them ; they are bareheaded, with swords by their sides, and 
in the dress of the 17th century. "We learn from a rhymed inscription underneath 
each figure that these are the effigies of the four first of the Tollemaches who settled 
at Helmingham the monument to their honour being erected by the fifth.* 

* These rhymes are curious and interesting, and possess sufficient merit to justify our devoting to them the space necessary. 

Baptized Lyonel Tollemache, my name, 
Since Norman's conquest of unsoyled fame, 
Shews my descent from ancestors of worth ; 
And that my life might not belye my birth, 
Their virtues' track, with heedful steps I trod 
Rightful to men, religious towards God. 

Train'd in the law, I gaiu'd the bar and bench, 
Not bent to kindle strife, but rather quench ; 
Gentle to clients, in my counsels just ; 
With Norfolk's great Duke, in no little trust ; 
Sir Joyce his heir was my fair faithful wife, 
Beutley my seat, and seventy years my life. 


Heir of my Father's name, surname, and seat, 
Lands, goods, and goodness towards small and great ; 
By Heaven's dear blessing on my best endeavour, 
In his fair footsteps did I well persevere ; 
Amongst the best, above the most admir'd, 
For all the parts my race and place requir'd. 

High sheriff of Suffolk once, of Norfolk twice, 
For both approv'd, right, gentle, just and wise ; 
Frank house, frank heart, free of my purse and port 
Both lov'd, and loving towards every sort ; 
Lord Went worth's daughter was my lovely Pheer, 
And fourscore, six less, lived I pilgrim here. 


My stile and state (least any question should) 

My Sire and Grandsire have already told ; 

My fame and fortune not unlike to theirs, 

My life as fair as human frailty bears ; 

My zeal to God, my love to ev'ry good, 

My Saviour knows, his saints have understood. 

My many virtues moral and divine, 

My liberal hand, my loving heart to mine, 

My piety, my pity, pains and care, 

My neighbours, tenants, servants, yet declare. 

My gentle bride Sir Ambrose Jermyn bred ; 

My years lack five of half my grandsire's thread. 


Here, with his father, sleeps Sir Lyonel, 

Knight, Baronet, all honours worthy well ; 

So well the acts of truth, his life exprest 

His elders' virtues, and excell'd their best ; 

His prudent bearing in his public place, 

.Suffolk's high sheriff twice, in sixteen years space. 

His zeal to God, and towards ill, severity ; 
His temperance, his justice, his sincerity : 
His native mildness towards great and small, 
His faith, his love to friends, wife, children all, 
In life and death ; made him belov'd and dear, 
To God and man, happy in Heaven and heiv. 

Happy in soul and body, goods and name ; 
Happy in wedlock with a noble dame, 
Lord Crumwell's daughter ; happy in his heir, 
Whose spring of virtues sprouts so young and fair : 
Whose dear affection, to his founders debtor ; 
Built them this tomb, but in his heart a better. 

coma ' , . 

oD,IAtti TS ' l 




jg) ENGRAVE HALL, " an embattled Manor-house, with Turrets of singular 
design and a Gate-House of acknowledged beauty " is situate 
about two miles from the ancient and venerable town of Bury 
St. Edmunds.* The founder of the building was Sir Thomas 
Kytson, a wealthy cloth-merchant of London, by whom it was 
erected, between the years 1525 ami 1538, probably upon the 
site of a mansion still older, the ancient hall of the De lleme- 
graves. A brief history of the several families through whose 
hands the Manor has passed into those of its present possessor, 
Sir Thomas Gage, Bart., may interest the reader. f 
In the reign of Edward the Confessor, it formed part of the territory of St. Edmund, 
by whose monks it was held at the Conquest. About the middle of the twelfth century 
it was granted by Anselm, the seventh Abbot, to " Leo and his heirs; " and by them was 
assumed the surname of Hemegrave. The De Heinegraves filled the highest offices in 

O l ' 

Suffolk for upwards of two centuries, when the race was extinct, and the estate became, 
by purchase, the property of the Hethcs. In failure of male issue, it passed in the 
nineteenth of Henry VI. by purchase, to the Staifords. In 1522, consequent upon the 
attainder of Edward, Duke of Buckingham, it was sold to Sir Thomas Kytson, " citizen 
and mercer of London, otherwise called, KYTSOX THE MERCHANT; " so he is styled in an 
Act of Parliament which confirmed him the purchaser of Hengrave.| He was succeeded 
by a posthumous son, who left no male issue ; he had, however, three daughters, one of 
whom married Thomas Lord Darcy, created Viscount Colchester and Earl Rivers, and 

* Hengrave is called in Domesday Book " Hemegretha." 
In several ancient deeds it is variously spelt Hemegreth, 
Hemegrede, Hemegrave, and Hengrave. 

f This information we condense, chiefly from a costly 
volume in quarto, published by the late John Gage, Esq., 
F.S.A., entitled " The History and Antiquities of Hengrave." 

I His portrait, by Holbein, is among the family portraits at 
Hengrave. It is that of a fine portly citizen, with a stern, but 


intellectual, countenance. He was Sheriff of London in 1533. 
having been previously knighted. His mercantile transactions 
were principally carried on "at the cloth fairs or staples 
holden at Antwerp, Middleburg, and other places in Flanders, 
by the Merchant Adventurers, to which company he belonged." 
His wealth must have been enormous, for ho purchased 
estates in the counties of Suffolk, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, 
and Nottingham. 


who, in right of his wife, became entitled to, and resided at, Hengrave. From her 
inherited a daughter, Penelope, who married Sir John Gage, Bart., of Firle, in Sussex.* 
In this family Hengrave has since continued ; its present proprietor being Sir Thomas 
Gage, the eighth Baronet, born on the 20th of March, 1812. 

The Mansion, which seems to have undergone very little change since its erection, 
and may be classed among the most unimpaired domestic structures of the kingdom, 
is of considerable size, " covering 18,500 square feet of ground," although by the removal, 
in 1775, of a mass of building which projected at the east and north sides, together 
with a high Tower, it has been reduced one-third at least from its original extent. 
Several ancient family documents which still exist, and of which copies are given by 
Mr. Gage, inform us that the whole cost of the structure did not much exceed 3000. t 

From these interesting documents we learn also that the Mansion at Ilengrave 
was furnished with all necessaries from sources within its own boundaries a mill, 
a forge, and a farm ; a dovecote, a grange, a barn ; a great and little park, a vineyard, 
an orchard, a hop-ground, and a hemp-ground. There were butts for the Archers, 
(" still visible in the upper part of the Park ") ; mews for the hawks, and kennels 
for the hounds. There was a bowling-green also ; and the neighbouring ponds were well 
stocked with fish to divert the Angler and supply the " Fast-day meal." The Inventory of 
household goods, taken in 1003, enumerates among other items, now familiar only 
to the Antiquary, " the Shovelboard," a table for playing a fashionable game; of Armour, 
the " Almain liivetts," " the Privyc Coats " of Mail ; the " Jackes of Plate," the " Mayle 
Gorgctts," the " Spanish Burgenetts," the " Daggcs," (short Hand-guns) ; " Snaphaunces," 
(Firelocks,) Pethernells, (a kind of Harquebuss,) and Ptyzens, (Partisans,) both "ordinary 
and very fayre." Of Musical Instruments, the Recorder, the Cornute, the Bandore, 
the Cittern, the Curtail, and the Lysarden all " in ye chamber where ye Musicyons 
playe;" with books, "covered with parchment," containing pavines, galliards, measures, 
levaultocs, corrantoes, and Italian fa-laes. 

The beautiful and long-famous Gate-way of Ilengrave Hall is pictured in the 
accompanying print. It is a splendid example of " Tudor magnificence ; " " of such 
singular beauty," says Mr. Gough, " and in such high preservation, that, perhaps, a more 

* It is said that Sir George Trenchard, Sir John Gage, and 
Sir William Hervey, each solicited at the same time the hand 
of the wealthy heiress ; and that, to keep peace between the 
rivals, she threatened the first aggressor with her perpetual 

are still preserved. Among others, is the contract with John 
Eastowe, the mason, to " macke a house at Hengrave of all 
manor of mason's worck," &c. &c. " The said John must have 
for ye sayd worck, and finishing thereof, (.200), to be 

displeasure ; "humorously telling them that, if they would ' paid, xli. when he begins the foundacyon thereof, and after- 
wait, she would have them all in their turns a promise j wards always as xx li. worth of worke is wrought by estyma- 
which the lady actually performed." Her first husband was : oion." The plasterer's contract is for ,116" of lawful money 
Sir George Trenchard, her second Sir John Gage, and her | of Ingland." Among other items are these" For a lode of 
third Sir William Hervey. She left issue only by her second tymbar, vi s. ;" " The glasyar, for making of all the glass wyn- 
husband. dowes of the manour place, with the sodar, and for xiii skutt- 

f Several documents relative to " the raising of Hengrave " , ohens with armes, iiii li." (four pounds.) 


elegant specimen of the Architecture of the age in which it was erected cannot now 
be seen." We borrow our description of it from Mr. Gage. The structure has an arch 
obtusely pointed ; in the spandrels appear the Kytson Crest, a unicorn's head erased. 
The space above is filled by a triple bay window, the domes of which are rich in scale 
work and crockets, and have basements or brackets elegantly terminated in pendant 
corbels ; each square compartment in the lower division of the window contains a Shield, 
bearing the Arms of some member of the family of the founder. On the frieze below 
two of these Shields are these words : 

pus hot fieri ftcit Conu Jlntson. 

guto gni. piCdCCC. JTrirtssimo tiafao. 

The battlements of the Gate-house, assuming the appearance of small gables, the 
points of which, crowned with richly carved hoop garlands and varies, correspond with 
those of the triple dome below, give height to the whole, and complete the beauty and 
harmony of the design. The Inner Court of fine masonry, embattled, appears in its 
original state ; and is distinguished by the bay window of the Hall on the' north side. 
The interior of the Mansion has little of its primitive character ; but " the florid style of 
architecture which prevailed, is still conspicuous in the fair tracery, pendant, and 
spandrels of the bay window," which retains its early beauty. Of the number and 
variety of the apartments at Hengrave, and of the splendid luxury of its domestic 
arrangements, some judgment may be formed from the " Inventory," dated 1003, of which 
Mr. Gage prints a copy. Here we read of the Queen's Chamber, the Chiefe Chamber, 
the Great Chamber, the Armoury, the Gallery at the Tower, the Dyning Chamber, the 
Chapell Chamber, the Chamber in which the muscycions playe, and a host of others all 
magnificently furnished. The Great Chamber was hung with eight large pieces of fine 
arras "parke worke with great beasts and fowls, 1GO yards ;" the cheyrcs and stoolcs 
were covered with coloured clothe of silver ; the carpetts were of Turkeye worke. The 
Dyning Chamber had its tapestry e " of the story of Danca." The "VVynter Parlor, its 
" pfuming frame of brasse " and " chessc boorde, w th men to it." To the furniture of 
the Armoury and the Musicians' Chamber we have adverted. The contents of the 
" Sadler's Shopp," however, denotes more pointedly the wealth and luxury of the family. 
The saddles were of sumptuous character " layed with gould lace; " " fringed with gould 
and silke ; " " embroidered with goulde and purle ; " and so forth. 

Towards the close of the last century, the Mansion was the abode of a sisterhood of 
expatriated nuns. They belonged to the English Convent of Austin Nuns at Bruges, and 
obtained an asylum here by the generosity of Sir Thomas Gage, himself a Roman 
Catholic. They subsequently returned to France ; but the mortal remains of many of 
the persecuted Sisters lie in the Churchyard of Hengrave among others, those of their 



Abbess, the venerable Mary More, one of the heirs-general, and the last lineal descendant, 
in the paternal line, of the great Chancellor, Sir Thomas More. 

Hengrave Church is very close to the Hall, and would appear, indeed, to have been 
originally attached to it. It has 
long ceased to be used for the pur- 
pose of worship, but is kept in re- 
pair as the Burial-place of the 
family. It is of small structure, 
built of the materials common to 
sacred edifices in the counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk rough flint, 
with cement and free-stone in the 
battlements, parapets, groins, but- 
tresses, windows, and arches. The 
round Tower, indicated in the ac- 
companying print, is curious, and of remote antiquity. Its external aspect is peculiarly 
venerable, covered with Ivy-trees, . the growth of centuries. The interior (where, it is 
said, no religious service has been performed since the Reformation, the family having 
adhered, through all changes, to the old faith, is without pews, and contains many 
richly-sculptured Monuments. Among them is a superb Tomb of marble and coloured 
free-stone, to' the memory of Margaret, Countess of Bath, and her three husbands ; 
the first of whom was Sir Thomas Kytson the citizen-founder of Hengrave who died 
September 13th, 1545, aged 55 years. The other principal Tombs are in memory of Sir 
Thomas Kytson, the younger ; Sir Thomas Darcy ; the Bourchiers, Earls of Bath ; the 
Cornwallys ; and the Gages. 

Altogether, there are few of the Baronial Mansions of England so little spoiled 
by time so comparatively uninjured by modern taste and injudicious improvement. 
Hengrave Hall is " a fair and, in some respects, a unique example of the domestic 
architecture of the period of its erection." 



ITHIN four miles north-west of the venerable town of Bury St. 
Edmunds, the traveller may notice, not far from the road-side, 
the turrets of an ancient House, now decayed, but which, in the 
palmy age of England, was classed among the stateliest of its 
" stately Homes." Unless attention is directed to it, however, 
it will attract no passers-by; for very humble are now the 
pretensions of the Palace-Hall, in which resided Charles Bran- 
don, Duke of Suffolk, and his Royal wife, the youngest daughter 
of Henry VII., sister to Henry VIII., and widow of Louis XII., King of France. 

The Old Hall is situated in the very centre of a host of picturesque antiquities ; in 
all directions around it exist objects of exceeding interest, as relics of the olden time 
and imperishable illustrations of British History. It would be difficult to find in the 
kingdom so many remains of architectural splendour within a circuit of four or five miles, 
Bury contains the most interesting of our monastic ruins. Among them are those of 
the famous "Norman Tower" (still comparatively unimpaired), erected in the reign of 
the Conqueror, as the Grand Portal to the magnificent church of Abbot Baldwin ; the 
Charnel Chapel, in which Lidgate wrote, the Church which for centuries enshrined the 
miracle-working bones of St. Edmund, and the walls of the Chamber where, on the 20th 
of November, 1215, " the Barons " pledged " the repose of their souls " to extort the 
Charter of Freedom from the tyrant John. The road to West Stow is scarcely less rich in 
historic sites than the town of Bury. Without the north-gate are the remains of the 
Gateway to St. Saviour's Hospital, where, during the Parliament of 1446, assembled at 
Bury, by Henry VI., the " good Duke Humphrey" was murdered by Cardinal Beaufort and 
De la Pole ; half a mile beyond, we cross the Old Toll-gate Bridge of the mitred Abbots of 
St. Edmunsbury ; at a short distance, an ivy-clad Tower is all that remains of the Church 
of Fornham St. Genevieve ; but tumuli still endure to indicate where the ten thousand 
Flemings were buried by " sloven-hands," after the bloody battle which gave to the second 


Henry peaceable possession of the crown. Ry other roads we pass objects equally fertile 
of history. The Round Towers of Saxham are within ken ; Risby and Hengrave Churches 
are close at hand ; and very near us are some of the grandest and most beautiful of the 
Baronial Halls of England Coldham, Rushbrooke, and Hengrave among the rest. 

All who visit the ancient mansion of West Stow, will first enter the venerable Church, 
to which a footway leads through a field from off the main road. It is a fine example of 
a very early age. The Tower is square and embattled ; the Chancel, apparently of a more 
recent date than the Nave, contains an enriched Piscina, of the fifteenth century, and 
many mural monuments and grave-stones of the once illustrious family of Crofts a 
family now known in Suffolk only by history and these cold records of their fame. The 
Nave has an open roof; the brackets that support the principals are ornamented Avith 
armorial bearings of " many ancient Lords of this Manor, with their alliances." 

Of West Stow Hall very little is known. The assertion that it was formerly the residence 
of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and the Royal widow he had married, is supported 
mainly by tradition and their armorial bearings, which still exist, carved upon a stone, 
over the porch. Of the once extensive pile nothing now remains, except the Turrets we 
have pictured ; and a long Corridor, reaching to a modern house the comfortable home 
of a substantial farmer. The former bears ample evidence that its date is of the time of 
Henry VIII. ; that of the Corridor is not so remote by a century. 

It is certain that, after the romantic marriage of Charles Brandon with the beloved of 
his younger days, when death had freed her from her state-contract with Louis XII., 
and her early lover had become a widower, they lived for many years in comparative 
seclusion in Suffolk ; and, although " Mary Tudor died at the Manor of Westhorpe in this 
county, in 1533," it is more than probable that West Stow was one of their mansions. 
It was evidently of great extent ; there are persons still living, who recollect a 
quadrangular court and extensive out-buildings ; and the wide Moat by which it was 
surrounded was filled up only two years ago. The Tower is partially of a defensive 
character ; the interior consists of several small chambers, one of which contains some 
singular paintings in distemper, the principal objects in which are these : A boy 
hawking, with an inscription in old English letters, " Thus doe I all the day ;" a young 
man making love to a maiden, inscribed " Thus doe I while I may ;" a middle-aged 
man, looking on the inscription, "Thus did I when I might;" an aged man, hobbling 
onward the inscription, " Good Lord, will this world last ever?" The drawings are rude, 
but they are of the age of Elizabeth. They were recently exposed to view by the removal 
of a skirting of oak ; and are as fresh as if painted yesterday. 







AM HOUSE. Few mansions are more pleasantly situated than 
this the dwelling of the Tollemaches, Earls of Dysart. It 
stands on the south bank of the Thames; distant about 
twelve miles from London ; the pretty village of Twickenham 
is immediately opposite ; to the left is " Eel-pie Island," 
famous as a holiday resort of many who " in populous city 
pent " covet periodical acquaintance with clear streams and 
green lanes ; to the right is far-famed Richmond Hill, which, 
although distant a mile perhaps, seems, from the tortuous 
winding of the river, to form a part of the demesne ; while 

the back ground is supplied by Richmond Park, with its graceful slopes and its thick 
masses of rich underwood mingled among groups of magnificent forest trees. 

The House was erected early in the seventeenth century the date, 1010, still 
stands on the door of the principal entrance. It is said to have been built for 
the good Prince Henry, eldest son of James the First ; and a tradition exists that 
the illness of which he died was the result of bathing too freely in the adjacent 
river. It is, however, unlikely that the Prince ever resided here ; and it is certain 
that the builder was Sir Thomas Vavasor, Knight Marshal, appointed, in 1611, 
together with Sir Francis Bacon, Judge of the Marshal's court, and to have been 
"surrendered by him, together with certain customary lands, to John (Ramsay), 
Earl of Ilolderness, who died in 1024 or 1625." We follow the authority of 
Manning, the County Historian, who states that by this Earl, or, more probably, 
his heirs, the House and Lands were " sold to William Murray groom of the bed- 
chamber to James the First, and afterwards created, in 1643, by that monarch 
Earl of Dysart* "whose widow, Katherine, on the 22nd May, 1651, surrendered 
them to the use of Sir Lionel Tollemache and Elizabeth his wife, her daughter, who 
in the year following surrendered them to the use of Sir Lionel's will." This 
daughter, to whom the honour of the Earl " such it was," writes Burnet 

* Burnet gives a character of the first Earl of Dysart by no 
means flattering. " He was well turned for a Court ; very 
insinuating, but very false ; and of so revengeful a temper 
that rather than any of the counsels given by his enemies 

should succeed, he would have revealed them, and betrayed 
both the King and them. He had one particular quality, that 
when he was drank, which was very often, he was upon a most 
exact reserve, though he was pretty open at all other times." 


descended, having outlived Sir Lionel, married a second time (being then Countess 
of Dysart) the Earl, afterwards Duke, of Lauderdale.* The House and Estates of 
Ham were inherited by " her heirs by her first husband ; " in whose possession they 
have since continued, being now the property of Lionel William John Tollemache, 
the sixth Earl of Dysart, and the residence of his Lordship's brother. 

The Duchess of Lauderdale famous during the reigns of four monarchs ; the 
First and Second James, and the First and Second Charles ; and through the 
Protectorship of Cromwell refurnished the House at Ham; where she continued to 
reside, until her death at a very advanced age. The Interior, with its gorgeous, yet 
remarkably tasteful " furnishing," has been scarcely altered since the aged dame 
occupied the Mansion. Time has dimmed the splendour of the "hangings," and 
tarnished the costly draperies of the rich looms of France ; but they remain in 
some places tattered and torn to supply indubitable evidence that the " woman of 
great beauty, but of far greater parts," had at all events a refined taste, and that 
at least a portion of the money she was "wanting in 
no means to obtain," was judiciously expended in the 
adornment of her House. Among other untouched relics 
of gone-by days, is a small Antechamber, where, it is said, 
she not only condescended to receive the Second Charles, 
but, if tradition is to be credited, where she " cajoled " 
Oliver Cromwell. There still remain the chair in which 
she used to sit, her small walking-cane, and a variety of 
objects she was wont to value and cherish as memorials of 
her active life and the successful issues of a hundred 
political intrigues.f 

The Exterior of the Mansion derives singularity chiefly from the adornment the 

* The Duchess of Lauderdale was one of the "busiest" 
women of the husy age in which she lived. Burnet insinuates, 
that during the life-time of her first husband " she had been in 
a correspondence with Lord Lauderdale that had given occasion 
for censure." She succeeded in persuading him that he was 
indebted for his escape after " Worcester fight " to " her in- 
trigues with Cromwell." " She was a woman," continues the 
Historian, " of great beauty, but of far greater parts. She had 
a wonderful quickness of apprehension, and an amazing viva- 
city in conversation. She had studied not only divinity and 
history, but mathematics and philosophy. She was violent in 
every thing she set about ; a violent friend, but a much more 
violent enemy. She had a restless ambition, lived at a vast 
expense, and was ravenously covetous ; and would have stuck 
at nothing by which she might compass her ends." Upon the 
accession of her husband to political power, after the Restora- 
tion, " all applications were made to her ; she took upon her 

to determine everything ; she sold all places ; and was wanting 
in no methods that could bring her money, which she lavished 
out in a most profuse vanity." 

t Lysons, writing more than half a century ago, describes 
the furnishing of the Mansion in terms which suit exactly to 
describe its present state. " It is," he says, " a curious speci- 
men of a mansion of the age of Charles the Second. The ceil- 
ings are painted by Verrio, and the rooms are ornamented with 
that massy magnificence of decoration then in fashion. The 
furniture is very rich ; even the bellows and brushes, in some 
of the apartments, are of solid silver, or of silver filigree. In 
the closet adjoining the bed-chamber, which was the Duchess 
of Lauderdale's, still remains the great chair in which she used 
to sit and read ; it has a small desk fixed to it, and her cane 
hangs by the side. The furniture of the whole room is such 
that one might almost fancy her Grace to be still an inhabitant 
of the house." 


outer walls receive from a collection of Roman busts ; some of which, however, 

having been removed by time, have been replaced by those of Poets of the age of 

Anne. Immediately in front stands the statue 

of " Father Thames " copied from the well- 
known work of the elder Bacon in the Court- 
yard of Somerset House. The Hall-door (which 

supplies our initial letter) is of very elegant and 

elaborate workmanship. The Hall is surrounded 

by an open gallery ; the rooms on the ground 

floor contain little to interest, except the 

Chamber and Dressing-room of the famous 

Duchess the room in which her descendant, 

the late venerable Countess of Dysart, also 

died. Passing a small Chapel, the Chambers 

on the upper floor are reached by a staircase 

of peculiar character and very considerable 

beauty. The balustrades are of walnut-tree, 

richly carved into representations of armour 

and military trophies of various countries and epochs. The State Apartments are, as 

we have intimated, little changed. On either side of the Landing are the State 

Bed-rooms one of which, containing copies in 
tapestry of some of the Cartoons, the young 
Prince Henry is said to have occupied ; the 
bed and furniture are certainly of the period. 
The several Drawing-rooms contain valuable and 
interesting relics of antiquity ; and a small closet 
is amazingly rich in the choicest and rarest 
objects of virtu Miniature Paintings by Philip 
Wouvermans, carved Frames by Grindling Gib- 
bons, carved Cupids by Fiamingo, Conversation 
Scenes by Watteau, Miniatures by Cooper in 
short, the assemblage here is of immense value 
and of surpassing interest. Among its other 
treasures may be mentioned a Lock of Hair of 
the unhappy Devereux, Earl of Essex the 
authenticity of which admits of no dispute ; a 

Prayer book, the gift of Charles the First ; and, in the Library, no fewer than sixteen 

uninjured Caxtons. 


The " Long Gallery " ninety-two feet in length is hung with Portraits, the majority 
of which are original works of the great Masters who conferred honour and glory on 
the Courts of the First and the Second Charles. Leading from the Long Gallery is 
the famous " Cabal Chamber," * the chairs and tables and other furniture in which 
have been untouched since the notorious "five" here met in secret to arrange and 
carry out their plans. 

So unchanged is the character of the Mansion, that little effort of imagination will 
be required to people it with the gay courtiers and light dames of the reign of the 
second Charles, when the " House at Ham " was in its glory. Every object it contains is 
in keeping with the period ; of modern furniture there is nothing ; but all the tables, 
chairs, footstools, fire-dogs, from things of curious and rare value down to the minutest 
matters of daily use, are of an age gone by. This advantage is mainly attributable 
to the fact that since the Restoration the venerable dwelling has had but few occupants 
two of them, the Duchess of Lauderdale and the late Countess of Dysart, having died 
there when their years numbered upwards of fourscore. According to Hume, James the 
Second was " ordered to retire to this house," on the arrival of the Prince of Orange in 
London, but " thinking himself unsafe so near the Metropolis, he fled privately to 
France." Subsequently the " Manor House at Ham " ceased to possess any public 
interest ; fortunately there has been no wish on the part of its noble owners to effect 
"restorations" of any kind; it has been consequently suffered to retain its solemn 
aspect and somewhat gloomy character ; and remains a striking and impressive 
monument of the period of its erection. 

* The ministry, popularly known as the Cabal, came into 
power at the latter end of the year 1667, when Clarendon was 
turned out of office, and impeached by Parliament. That 
minister had raised a host of enemies at Court, by preserving a 
state and decorum foreign to their reigning habits. Evelyn 
says, " He kept up the form and substance of things in the 
nation with more solemnity than some would have had. The 
Parliament had accused him, and he had enemies at Court 
especially the buffoons and ladies of pleasure because he 
thwarted them, and stood in their way." There were, however, 
grave charges brought against him as Chancellor, and he was 
obliged to fly the kingdom, dying an exile in France about 
seven years afterwards. The ministry that succeeded him 
consisted of five noblemen, the initials of whose names formed 
the word Cabal, to which their actions in many instances too 
well answered. These noblemen were Sir Thomas Clifford, 
first commissioner of the Treasury, afterwards Lord Clifford 
and high treasurer ; the Earl of Arlington, secretary of state ; 
the Duke of Buckingham ; Lord Ashley, chancellor of the 

Exchequer, afterwards PJarl of Shaftesbury and lord chan- 
cellor ; and the Duke of Lauderdale. During the ascendancy 
of these ministers, Charles grew more reckless than ever. 
As none of them possessed the power Clarendon had of 
restraining him, he became much more despotic, treated 
Parliament more contemptuously, and allowed himself to 
become the pensioner of the French king. 

The passing of the Test Act in 1673 first disunited "the 
Cabal," on which occasion Clifford, the Popish lord treasurer, 
resigned his staff. Soon after the Prorogation of Parliament, 
on the fourth of November in the same year, the King took 
the great Seal from Shaftesbury, and gave it to Sir Heneage 
Finch, as Lord Keeper. The other members of the Cabal 
ministry, Arlington, Buckingham, and Lauderdale, were in 
seeming odium at court ; and Clifford was unexpectedly suc- 
ceeded by Sir Thomas Osborn, who was created Lord Treasurer 
and Earl of Danby ; he became in effect prime minister, and 
the Danby administration was in many respects more iniqui- 
tous than that of the Cabal. 





OSELEY HOUSE. This ancient Mansion the residence of James 
More Molyneux, Esq., the lineal representative of two 
families, famous in old times although sadly impaired by 
time and neglect cannot fail, while one stone remains 
above another, to retain the interest that arises from vene- 
rable antiquity, in association with renowned names. It is 
situated about two miles south-west of Guildford. A long 
Avenue, perfectly bare of trees, leads from the public road 
to the House. The old Hall has been shorn of its proud and 
graceful proportions ; repairs have been made by sloven hands ; parts of the Moat 
have been filled up, but so coarsely, as to seem the result of accident rather than design. 
The principal approach is over a bridge between clumsy stables and storehouses. The 
odious face of a modern clock covers the antique Horologe, of which many of its old 
admirers make honourable mention ; the Porch, which bears the date of 1812, over which 
is still inscribed, in Roman capital letters, the sentence 


is of a nondescript character, utterly out of keeping with the structure ; a deformity 
which following absurdities of outhouses and unseemly patches carries conviction that 

" Something ails the place." 

Nor is the impression removed upon entering the venerable Hall venerable only 
from its age for bad taste appears to have studied how most effectually to deface it. 
A patent stove, of Birmingham manufacture, stands a few feet from the embayed 
window, illuminated with the "Household Coats of the Family, emblazoned in the 
gorgeous tinctures of Heraldry on the glass ; " a " thin " Gallery, which the gauntleted 
hand of one of the grim Knights of old tines might shiver into fragments at a 
single blow, leads to some upper chambers; above the sturdy arched Doorway hang 


some double-handed swords, glaives, partisans, and rusty helmets, relics of the once 
heroic masters of the place, 

" The treasures of a soldier, bought with blood, 
And kept at life's expense," 

mingled with the bugles of a brass band, and the drumsticks of a corps of Yeomanry. 

These unequivocal signs of neglect and tokens of indifference towards ancient 
honours and long-ago renown are mournful indications grieving the heart of the 
antiquary, and nullifying the belief that a proud name is a noble heritage because 
a stimulus to rivalry in honour and in fame. It has been our bounden duty thus 
to notice this modern vandalism for the humblest writer may contribute somewhat 
to increase a love for what is excellent by aiding to censure what is evil. 

Of its internal decorations there are some interesting and valuable remains, which 
have neither been removed nor defaced. Mr. Shaw, in his " Details of Elizabethan 
Architecture," publishes an engraving of the beautiful and elaborately-carved Chimney- 
piece of the Dining Room. " The compartment above the mantel is entirely devoted to 
a very full display of heraldic insignia, recording the descent and alliances of the family 

of More ; the rich effect of which is 
increased by the spirited carvings of 
the styles, and of the six variously- 
formed panels in which the several 
shields are inserted. These ornaments 
are all executed in fine stone, and 
skilfully wrought." The ceilings at 
Loseley are also of remarkable cha- 
racter. That of the Drawing Room 
is especially fine. It is adorned with 
"Gothic tracery and pendant corbels." 

In one of the cornices is inserted a 
mulberry-tree, on one side of which 

is inscribed " Morus tarde Moriens ; " on the other, " Morum cito Moriturum " being 
a rebus on the name of the family. The ceiling of the Bed Room, of which a portion is 
shown in the Avood-cut annexed, is also very beautiful. In several of the compartments 
are introduced the Moor-cock and Moor-henbadges of the race of More. 

"The Manor of Loseley," according to Mr. Kempe, in his introduction to "The 
Loseley Manuscripts," * " bore its present appellation from the Saxon times." Osmond 

" Manuscripts and other rare documents illustrative of 

Molyneux, Esq., at Loseley House, in Surrey. Edited by 

some of the more minute particulars of History, Biography, Alfred John Kempe, F.S.A., 1836." This curious and very 
and Manners, from the reign of Henry VIII., to that* of j interesting volume contains many singular documents, "con- 
James I., preserved in the muniment room of James More i nected with passages in history and biography, with the 


gave it to King Edward the Confessor ; the Conqueror gave it to Roger de Montgomery, 
Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury, a stout leader of the Normans at Hastings fight; 
and after passing into the possession of various persons by inheritance or purchase, it 
was, early in the reign of the Eighth Henry, bought by Christopher More, Esq., whose 
grandfather was Thomas More, of Norton, in the County of Derby, Gent., with whom 
the pedigree of More of Loseley, in the Books of the Heralds' College, begins. His son 
and successor, William, who was knighted by the Earl of Leicester " the Queen being 
present at the ceremony" built the Mansion at Loseley, commencing the work in 1562 
it is conjectured "to the north of an older edifice." It was evidently intended to 
form three squares of a quadrangle, if not a complete square. The centre of the 
building, which remains to this day, was completed in 1568. The Gallery and Chapel 
were added subsequently, but these have been " of late years demolished." The accom- 
panying wood-cut is of the South front ; and, fortunately for the picturesque effect of the 
subject, a group of trees on the 
lawn conceals from view the un- 
gainly modern porch, and some 
other monstrous additions to the 
venerable building of the sixteenth 

To Sir William More succeeded, 
in 1600, Sir George More, who had 
been knighted by Queen Elizabeth ; 
and who, under James the First, 
was Chancellor of the Order of the 
Garter, Lieutenant of the Tower, 
and Receiver-General and Treasurer 
to Henry Prince of Wales. The 

last male heir of the Mores dying in 1689, the estate devolved to Margaret his sister, 
who married Sir Thomas Molyneux, Knight, the ancestor of the present possessor 
of Loseley a name even more renowned than that with which thenceforward it 
became united. 

It was during the Lordship of Sir George More between the years 1600 and 1632 
that the history of Loseley became deeply interesting, as associated with some of the 

entertainment of the Court, with the internal regulations of 
the magistracy, and in some instances with the minor relations 
of domestic life " affording very considerable help to arrive 
at correct ideas and just estimates of the state of society and 
political government in the 16th and early part of the 17th 
centuries. The editor intimates that the manuscripts were 
discovered in the muniment room at Loseley, " of which the 

key had been lost, and its existence disregarded during an 
interval of 200 years." One of its earliest documents is a 
summons to Christopher More, to come to London to welcome 
Anne of Cleves, with six servants in his company, to ride 
amongst other gentlemen in "cotes of black velvet, with 
cheines of gold about their neckes, and with gownes of velvet 
or some other good silke for their chainge." 


most remarkable events and illustrious worthies of the epoch. The famous Dr. Donne 
Poet, Scholar, and Divine privately married the daughter of Sir George. Donne was 
at that tune Secretary to the Lord Chancellor Egerton, the husband of the Lady's aunt. 
The marriage was "to Sir George so immeasurably unwelcome," that he successfully 
exerted his influence to procure the Poet's dismissal from his honourable and profitable 
service, and consigned to a gaol the clergyman by whom the knot had been tied. His 
father-in-law although earnestly intreated in a letter, still preserved at Loseley, " so to 
deal in the matter as the persuasions of nature, reason, wisdome, and Christianity 
should dictate " separated the couple, imprisoning one " oifender," and involving the 
other in a tedious and ruinous law-suit, for the recovery of his " deare life." His friend 
and biographer, exquisite Izaak Walton, has in his own simple and natural manner 
recorded the story of this young affection, and of the sad trials and pecuniary difficulties 
in which the Poet and his wife were for a long period involved; presenting us with 
a beautiful though a mournful picture of a high and generous mind struggling against 
the most galling of all troubles; to him the more intolerable, because of her whom 
he had " transplanted into a wretched fortune, which he laboured to disguise from her 
by many honest inventions." At length, however, fate was not only borne but 
conquered; Dr. Donne entered into holy orders, became a prosperous man King's 
Chaplain and Dean of St. Paul's and the gates of Loseley did not for ever remain 
closed against him. Other names equally immortal are associated with this ancient 
house. Sir George More was the guardian of Lord Herbert of Cherbury the Knight 
" whose chivalry was draAvn from the purest founts of the Fairy Queen" the history of 
whose life is a brilliant romance. 

Queen Elizabeth paid frequent visits to Loseley during her " progresses ; " and among 
the "manuscripts" there exists a letter, not very complimentary to the hospitality of 
the Mansion, in which Sir Anthony Wingfield warns his friend Mr. More that he will 
find the visit " a very great trouble and hinderance," and advises him how to get 
himself excused from the honour. It is certain, however, that her Majesty did receive 
entertainment there, several times. There are letters from Sir Christopher Hatton, in 
1583, and from Lord Hunsdon, in 1591, ordering Sir William More that his house be 
"kept sweete and cleane" to receive her Highness and the former intimates, that a 
past excuse will not again serve a turn ; " for," writes Sir Christopher, " I have been 
heretofore informed that you had some sycke of the infectione the last yeare, and of 
other dangerous diseases of late in it, w'ch is now reported here as a misinformacion and 
for otherwise than the brute (bruit) declared." The letter is addressed " from the Court 
at Otlands, to the Right w'ship" my very good frende, S r Will'm More, Knight." 



HE church at Arundel of which we give a print of the 
interior from a drawing by Mr. Prout is of very ancient 
date. For a scries of years down to our own time, it was 
suffered to fall into decay; and age was gradually re- 
moving all tokens of its former splendour. The roof 
had disappeared from the chancel; and ivy had over- 
grown its carved pillars and mullioned windows; the 
few repairs to which it had been subjected had been 
carried out in bad taste ; and for a long period it 

remained a discreditable evidence of the apathy of successive Dukes of Norfolk, 

rather than a monument to record the honours and glories of the race. It is 

now, however, in progress of restoration ; its 

claims upon the noble family have been 

recognised ; the inroads of time have been 

effectually arrested ; and it is undergoing such 

necessary changes (at the cost of the present 

Duke) as are dictated by judgment and good 

sense. The church occupies an elevated position 

north of the toAvn, and nearly opposite the 

principal entrance into the Castle. Its exterior 

has many traces of antiquity, and not a few 

remains of early beauty. Age, and the slovenly 

hands of stonemasons, have, however, materially 

injured its venerable character and imposing 

effect its principal injury having been sus- 
tained by the addition of a wooden spire 

placed above a low square tower which rises from the centre of the edifice. 

The church is of large size, and consists of a double arcade, dividing the nave from 


the aisles, above which are placed, "in what in the architecture of the age was 
termed the cleoestory, a row of circular windows enclosing quatrefoils a shape of 
rare occurrence." The south transept was, we are told, formerly occupied by the 
parochial altar; it now contains the communion-table and the font; the latter being 
octagonal upon an octagonal shaft, with a corresponding pedestal. It is composed of 
Sussex marble, and is of very early date. In the north transept was "the chantry 
of St. Christopher, commonly called Salmon's" to which was attached a priest whose 
endowment was the appropriation of the Church of Rudgwick, "Avith two acres of 
land, one in Rudgwick for his use, the other in Arundel for the site of his residence." 
The foundation of this chantry was created by the benefaction of Edward Mille, Esq. 
"The first incumbent, William Baynton, took possession of the benefice on the 9th 
May, 1440." * 

The original ecclesiastical foundation was that of the alien priory, or cell, dedicated 
to St. Nicholas, established by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, soon after the 
Conquest, and subjected to the Benedictine Abbey of Seez, or De Sagio, in Normandy. It 
consisted only of a Prior and three 
or four Monks, who continued to 
conduct the establishment for nearly 
three centuries, until the 3rd year 
of the reign of Richard II., when 
Richard Fitz-alan, Earl of Arundel, 
obtained a license to extinguish the 
Priory and to found a Chantry for 
the maintenance of a master and 
twelve secular canons with their 
officers. Upon this change, it was 
styled "the College of the Holy 
Trinity." f 

The Collegiate church being intended as the mausoleum of his family, the founder 
supplied ample means to enrich it with examples of monumental splendour. The tomb of 
his son Thomas Fitz-alan and his wife Beatrix, daughter of John, King of Portugal, was 

" In 1511, a dispute arose between the college on the one 
part, and the mayor, burgesses, and parishioners on the other, 
as to the liability of their respective bodies to repair the 
transepts and tower, with the bell and other appurtenances 
belonging to the latter. By consent of the parties, the point 
at issue was referred to the arbitration of Thomas, Earl of 
Arundel, and Robert Sherburne, Bishop of Chichester ; and 
an award was soon after published, by which the burthen was 
equally divided between the college and the town. To the 

former, the duty of repairing the south transept, commonly 
called ' the chancel of the parish? was assigned ; to the latter, 
the obligation of attending in the same manner to the north 
transept ; while the expense of upholding the tower, and the 
emoluments to be derived from the use of its bells, were 
thenceforth to be shared equally by both." 

t At the suppression, it was endowed with a yearly revenue 
of 2G3/. 14s. 9d. 


the earliest of those placed in the church. It is of alabaster, finely sculptured. * It was 
formerly painted and gilt. It contains the effigies of the Earl and his Lady ; at the feet 
of the Earl is a horse, the cognizance of the Fitz-alans, and at those of the Lady are two 
lap-dogs. Around, in niches, are small standing figures of ecclesiastics or pleureurs, with 
open books, as performing funeral obsequies, and above them as many escutcheons, the 
emblazoning of which is nearly obliterated. Other " stately tombs " are erected to the 
memories of John Fitz-alan and Eleanor his wife ; Thomas, Earl of Arundel, and his wife, 
"one of the eyres of Richard Wodevyle Earl Rivers, sister to Elizabeth Queen of 
England, sometime wife to King Edward IV." recording the date of the Earl's death, 
1524 ; and to Henry, Earl of Arundel, the last of the Fitz-alans, erected by his son-in-law, 
John, Baron Lumley, with a Latin inscription, of which the following is a translation : 

" The magnanimous hero, whose effigy is here beheld, and whose remains are deposited beneath this monument, was the 
Earl of this place, the last of a family deriving its lengthened descent from the son of Alan. His name was Henry, Lord 
and Baron Maltravers, Clunne and Oswaldestre, senior knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, only son and successor 
of William, Earl of Arundel, and the worthy representative of his father's virtues. To Henry, Edward, Mary, and 
Elizabeth, he discharged the duty of Privy Councillor. Under the first, he was Governor of Calais, Marshal of the 
army at the siege of Boulogne, and afterwards Lord Chamberlain. At the coronation of Edward, he officiated as Earl 
Marshal ; at that of Mary, as Lord High Constable. To the former, as to his father, he was Lord Chamberlain : to the 
latter, as well as to her sister, Queen Elizabeth, he was Lord High Steward, and President of the Council. 

" Thus, this man, illustrious in his descent, more illustrious in his employments, and deemed most illustrious both at 
home and abroad, rich in honour, but broken with labour and worn out with age, having attained his sixty-eighth year, 
calmly and piously fell asleep in the Lord, in London, on the 25th of February, 1/379. 

" To the kindest of fathers-in-law, and the best of patrons, here interred, John Lumley, Baron Lumley, his affectionate 
son-in-law and executor, with many tears, and as a last testimony of his love, has consecrated this monument, and 
adorned it with his own armour, not for the sake of preserving his memory, which his virtues have rendered immortal, hut 
for the sake of that mortal body, which is here deposited, in the hope of a happy resurrection." 

There is one monument of a peculiarly striking character ; it occupies an opening 
cut in the wall, between the chancel and the Lady's chapel the chapel which forms 
the subject of our principal engraving. They are divided by low arches. The tomb 
is an open feretrum or bier, carved in alabaster, and formerly painted, under which 
lies an emaciated figure extended on a shroud. Upon the upper slab is an effigy in 
plate armour, with a close tabard, emblazoned with Fitz-alan and Maltravers, quarterly, 
the feet resting on a horse. Two angels support the head. It represents John 
Fitz-alan, Earl of Arundel, who died at Beauvais of wounds received at the siege of 
Gerberoy, in 1435. He had selected this spot as the place of his interment; and 
although his remains were buried in the Cathedral of Beauvais, this singular 
monument was erected to his memory here. 

* By this Thomas Fitz- Alan and his wife Beatrix was founded | would support. At the Dissolution, these were valued at 
a hospital called " Maison Dieu," for the maintenance of as ' 421. 3s. 8d. per annum, 
many poor as the revenues with which it was endowed, 


The church encloses several monuments in addition to those we have enumerated ; 
and in the chancel are many brasses, containing epitaphs "in obsolete Latin and 
monkish verse " to masters and fellows of the college and to servants of the noble 
families the Montgomeries, the Albinis, the Fitz-alans and the Howards who have 
held sway over Arundel for centuries, for 

" Since William rose and Harold fell, 
There have been Counts of Arundel ; 
And Earls old Arundel shall have 
While rivers flow and forests wave." 

The decorations of the church and its magnificent tombs were either seriously injured or 
destroyed by soldiers quartered in the church during the siege of the castle in 1643. 
The windows were formerly filled with richly stained glass, the eastern window 
containing a series of kneeling figures, male and female, in coat armour and mantles, 
with their respective armorial bearings. * 

It is to the honour of the present Duke of Norfolk, that although a member of the 
Roman Catholic Church, he has deemed it his duty to restore this ancient and venerable 
edifice from the state of dilapidation in which it has for many years existed. 

* In one of the chapel windows is the figure of a swallow 
on the wing, which is considered to intimate the original of 
the name of the castle ; " for history and geography," says 
Mr. Tierney, "the realms of fancy and romance, have all 
been explored in order to discover its etymon." One author 
has amused himself with a rebus founded on the resemblance 
between the words Hirondelle and Arundel ; and " it is not 

improbable," writes Dr. Beattie, "that the migratory bird, 
here introduced, may have been selected as an appropriate 
emblem for the chapel window. The conjecture is, at least, 
as plausible as another that has been advanced ; namely, 
that Arundel is derived from Hirondelle the name of Bevis's 



HE PRIORY, BOXGHOVE part of which is now in ruins, but 
portions of which are still used as the Parish Church- 
was founded by Robert de Haia, Lord of Halmacro, A.D. 
1117, in the reign of King Henry the First, in honour of 
the Virgin and St. Blaise, for three monks only of the 
Benedictine order. The sole daughter of the founder 
was married to Roger St. John, who added three more ; 
and the number was augmented to fifteen, by their two 
sons, William and Robert, in the reign of King Stephen. 
It remained, however, subordinate to the Abbey of L' Essay, or De Exaquio, in 
Normandy, A.D. 1149. Before the suppression, the monks were reduced to nine. 
But when Edward the Third assumed possession of other alien Priories, that of 
Boxgrove secured the privilege of being " indigena," by which it was rendered 
independent, and retained its endowment considerable in proportion to the extent of 
the establishment. In the year 1535, its annual revenue was 185 19s., without 
including the income derived from fines and renewals. 

The Ruins of Halnacre, or Halnaker, House, the mansion of Robert de Haia, or De 
Haye, still exist in the grounds of Goodwood, the seat of his Grace the Duke of Richmond. 
To this " worthie and valourous knight," the estate was given by Henry the First ; from 
his descendant it passed, by marriage, to the family of St. John. In the reign of Edward 
the Third it was transferred, also by marriage, to the Poynings ; subsequently, it passed 
through the hands of the Bonvilles into those of the Lords de la Warr, who gave it to 
Henry the Eighth in exchange for the Abbey and lands of Wherwell, in Hampshire. 
Halnacre remained an appanage of the Crown until towards the close of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, when the Morleys received a grant of it. In 1701, it became the pro- 
perty of Mary, Countess of Derby,* who inherited from her father, Sir William Morley. 

* This Countess of Derby was the daughter of Sir William 
Morley, K.B., and her mother was a daughter of Sir John 
Denham, the Poet. On the north side of the Chancel is a 
marble Monument to her memory. She died in 1752, at the 
age of 85. She was distinguished by charitable deeds and 
on her tomb is represented sitting under an oak, relieving 
poor travellers, and pointing to a building she had founded in 

the Parish a Hospital endowed in 1741, as the inscription 
informs us, " the Alms-houses for the habitation and support 
of poor aged and infirm women, the School for the habitation 
and maintenance of a school-master, and the education of poor 
boys and girls the women and children to be chosen out of 
the parishes of Boxgrove, East Lavant, and Tangmere." 


At her death in 1752, it devolved to her cousin, Sir Thomas Ackland, Bart., who 
sold it for the sum of 50,000 to the Duke of Richmond. The Remains are of very 
limited extent ; sufficient, however, to indicate the former magnitude and splendour of 
the edifice. 

Of the conventual buildings (the great extent of which may be estimated by the old 
Avails which form enclosures to neighbouring farm-yards) little remains except the 
Refectory, now used as a barn ; and the present Parish Church, supposed to be the Choir 
of the original building. Some portions of the ancient Nave, which appears to be of a 

more remote era, may be traced in the 
broken arches westward of the Church ; and 
the Chapter-house is attached, externally, to 
the North Transept, having a Norman door- 
way, with arches on each side of it, leading, 
it is believed, to a Cloister which extended 
to the Refectory and the habitation of the 
monks. It is this fine relic of the once 
extensive and richly-decorated structure 
which Mr. Prout has pictured in the ap- 
pended Print. A considerable portion of it 
has been removed by time ; and the Church 
is now separated from the Refectory by a 

huge gap, where sheep were feeding quietly at the time of our visit. Marks of a 
Piscina, and a place for the Bell, may still be detected by a minute scrutiny. In an 
old MS., which came accidentally into our hands, it is surmised that this portion of 
the edifice was the Private Chapel of the monks. 

The exterior of the Church (represented on the opposite page) is of very imposing 
character, bearing indubitable tokens of remote antiquity. The Tower is low, with 
windows ; in its general form it resembles that of Winchester, and seems to be of 
the era of Henry the Second. The interior consists of a Nave and Chancel, without 
division, with aisles on each side, north and south % Transepts ; and a space, westward of 
the Tower, which is certainly the most ancient part of the structure. In length it is 
126 feet ; the width of the Nave being 24 feet, and that of the aisles each 13 feet 6 
inches. The Eastern Window, of three large lights, is separated internally by tall shafts 
and flourished capitals, and is ornamented, externally, with the nail-head moulding. 
This mixture of ornament affords almost conclusive proof that the structure is of 
the date of Stephen or Henry the Second, when the round Norman arch was first 
abandoned, and several novelties, which prevailed only in a few instances, were 


introduced. Pillars, somewhat similar in character, support the roof; but they have 
been consigned, from time to time, to the hands of the "white-washer," who has 
effectually hidden the fine Pur- 
beck marble of which they are 

The sepulchral remains in the 
Church of Boxgrove are remark- 
able, and worthy of investigation, 
although it is difficult to ascertain 
with any degree of certainty to 
whom the Tombs severally belong. 
They are six in number, two 
situated against the north wall of 
the north aisle, and another of 
large dimensions under one of the 
arches which divide the Chancel 

from the north aisle; and three others, placed against the south wall of the south 
aisle. Two of these probably contain the bodies of a sister and daughter of William 
de Albini, Earl of Arundel, who left a donation to the Church for prayers to be made 
" pro anima Adclizse reginsc (his mother, and Queen-Dowager of Henry the First), et 
pro auimabus Oliviao sororis mesc, et Olivise filiac meae, qua; ibi jacent." Out of this 
circumstance has probably arisen a tradition, that Queen Adeliza was here interred ; but 
there is sufficient evidence to prove that her remains were deposited in the Conventual 
Church of Reading.* Dugdale asserts, but erroneously, that Gundrcda, wife of William 

* " This Adeliza," writes Camden, " was daughter to Godfrey 
Barbatu.s, of Lovaine, who had for her dowrie Arundell Castle 
and all the forfeited lands of Robert de Belismo, the Earle, 
when the King (Henry the First) took her for his second wife. 

'' In her commendation, a certaine Englishman in that un- 
learned age wrote some unlearned verses," of which these lines 
are the commencement : 

" When Muses nine thy beauties rare (faire Adeliza Queene 
Of England) readie are to tell, they starke astonied beene ; 
What booteth thee so beautiful), gold-croune or pretious 

Dimme is the diadem to thee, the gemme hath beautie 


After the King's death she married William de Albini ; 
" who, taking part with Maude the Empresse against King 
Stephen, and defending his castle (of Arundel) against him, 
was, in recompense of his good service, by the saide Maude, the 
Empresse and Ladie of Englishmen (for this title she used), 
created Earle of Arundel ; and her son, King Henry, gave the 


whole Rape of Arundel to that William, to hold of him by the 
service of fourscore and foure knights' fees and one halfe." 
During her contest with Stephen, Aland was lodged in the 
Castle of Arundel, which the King besieged. The Earl, how- 
ever or, it is said, his Countess by diplomacy, contrived to 
facilitate the escape of the Empress to Bristol, from which she 
took shipping, and returned to the Continent. 

" A small Chamber, over the inner gate of Arundel Castle, 
enjoys the traditionary fame of having been her sleeping-room, 
during her sojourn there. It is a low square apartment, such 
as the Castellan might have occupied during a siege." The 
Bedstead on which the Empress is reported to have slept is 
still preserved there. " Its massive wallnut posts are elabo- 
rately carved, but so worm-eaten that, unless tenderly scruti- 
nized, the wood would be apt to fall into powder in the hands 
of the visitor." We have quoted this brief account from Dr. 
Beattie's History of Arundel. From the engraving that ac- 
companies it, there can be little doubt that this relic is no 
older than the reign of Henry the 8th, if so old. 


Earl Warren, was here buried ; her husband, it is believed, was a benefactor to the 
establishment. Thomas de Poynings and Philippa his second wife (daughter of Edmund 
Mortimer, Earl of March, Countess Dowager of Arundel and Pembroke), are also said to 
have been here interred ; and upon the key-stone of one of the tombs in the north aisle 
are the arms of the family of St. John (argent in a chief gules, two mullets pierced or) 
the tomb possibly of Thomas de Poynings, summoned as Lord St. John of Basing, 1369, 
(42 Edw. III.), obit. 1429. It is left mainly to conjecture, aided by the uncertain light of 
ti-adition, to determine whose dust is covered by these stones. There is, however, one 
Monument, concerning which no doubts can exist. It is a Sacellum, or Shrine, belonging 
to the family of West, or La War. The date, as may be seen on the pendant ornament 
between the two north-eastern arches, is 1532, which was during the lifetime of Thomas 
West, second Baron La War and Cantilupe ; but it is supposed to have been erected 
after his death by his daughter, Dorothy, who married Sir Edward Owen. The 
inscription under the Altar in the Shrine 

<E>f jn cfjartte prap for j> E souls of flFftoinag ILa JUJHate ant) ISlgjaietl) i) s 
seems to sanction the supposition. In other parts of the Shrine may be read the words, 

Ojomas fLa 23ar &nno Dm MVXXXH. 



Between the niches of the Shrine, over the arcades, are four coats of arms, supported by 
angels, with the quarterings of La War, Cantilupe, Mortimer, St. John, Poynings, Bonville, 
Wingfield, &c. The Tomb is a peculiarly interesting and remarkably beautiful object. 
It has recently been cleaned and repaired by order of the Duke of Richmond 
somewhat clumsily, however, for the workman has disarranged several of the 
decorations, and one of the figures he has placed " upside down." It is richly carved 
in stone, and abundantly ornamented. Mr. Prout has introduced it into the Drawing 
which exhibits the Interior of the venerable Church, with its Pulpit of carved oak, black 
with age. An ancient Font has been recently removed from the Nave to the foot of the 
Pulpit. In the Chancel are many encaustic tiles one of which supplies us with an 
initial letter. 

The Church is situated about eight miles west of Arundel, a short distance out of the 
road to Chichester, from which it is distant about four miles. 



STON HALL, the residence of James Watt, Esq. whose name has 
been rendered " famous for all time " -by the genius and enter- 
prise of his great father is situate about two miles from the 
town of Birmingham, on an eminence which overlooks the 
river Tame. Although erected during the reign of James the 
First and his successor, it is certain that a baronial mansion 
previously existed adjacent to the present edifice : authorities 
are conclusive on this point, and its site was indicated until 
recently by some venerable trees, the relics of at least three 
centuries. Prior to the Norman conquest (according to Dugdale) the manor of Aston, or, 
as it was then written, Estone or East Town, was possessed by Edwin earl of Mercia. 
Upon the distribution of lands which followed that event, it was bestowed by the Conqueror 
upon William Fitz-Ausculf, lord of the neighbouring castle of Dudley, for whom it was held 
by one Godmund. It was certified to contain, at that time, viii. hides of land, valued at 100 
shillings, a mill rated at iiis., a church, and woods extending three miles in length and half 
a mile in breadth. After passing through the hands of several successive lords of Dudley, 
it was presented by one of them, named Ralph Someri, in the beginning of the reign of 
King John, to William de Erdington and his heirs for ever ; and we find the following 
curious grant respecting it, viz. " That the manour-house and demesne at Estone, with 
divers tenements thereto belonging, should be held by him, by the service of a pair of gilt 
spurs, or the value thereof, viz. virf., payable yearly at Easter, for all services or demands 
whatsoever." From the Erdingtons it passed to the family of Maidenhache, whose daughter 
Sibel conveyed it by marriage to Adam de Grymesurwe, whose daughter sold it in 1367 
to John Atte Holt of Duddeston near Birmingham, and in whose family it subsequently 
continued for upwards of four hundred years. Originally of the people, they became powerful 
and wealthy " lords of the soil," eminent for worth and probity, and occupying offices of high 
trust in Warwickshire and the neighbouring counties. Thomas Holt is especially mentioned 


as an eminent lawyer in the reign of Henry the Eighth ; he was Justice of North Wales, 
and in commission as a justice of the peace for his native county during the greater part 
of that monarch's sovereignty. To this " worthie gentleman " succeeded his son Edward, who, 
dying in the thirty-fifth of Elizabeth, was succeeded by his son Thomas, who was Sheriff of 
Warwickshire in the forty-second of Elizabeth, was knighted by King James on his accession 
to the throne, and in the tenth year of his reign advanced to the dignity of a baronet. 
It was this Sir Thomas who enclosed the spacious park, and erected the present mansion. 
The date and circumstances of the building are thus recorded over the entrance door- 
way : 

" Sir Thomas Holte, of Duddeston in the countie of Warwick, Knight and Baronet, began to build this 
house in Aprill, Anno Domini 1618, in the 1.6th yeare of the raigne of King James of England, &c., and of 
Scotland the one and fiftieth ; and the said Sir Thomas Holte came to dwell in this house in May, in Anno 
Domini 1631, in the seaventh ycare of the raigne of our soveraigne Lord King Charles, and he did finish this 
house in Aprill, Anno Domini 1635, in the eleventh yeare of the raigne of the sayde King Charles. 


We may hence infer that " Sir Thomas Holte of Duddeston," until the building of the 
mansion, chiefly resided at the old house at Duddeston, which, though still standing, is so 
completely altered that barely a trace of its ancient character remains. It is now used as a 
public place of recreation under the title of " Vauxhall." 

Sir Thomas was emphatically a good man and a loyal subject. He endowed alms-houses, 
which, to this day, give shelter to some aged people ; and though too old to appear in arms 
for his sovereign during the wars of Charles with the Parliament, he was represented by his 
son in the army of the king, whom he received and entertained in his house a few days prior 
to the battle of Edgehill. For his devotion to his master he, of course, endured persecution j 
heavy fines were levied on his estate, and his mansion was more than once plundered. Sir 
Thomas was succeeded by his grandson and heir, Sir Robert Holt ; subsequently the estate 
came into the possession of Sir Lister Holt, who, dying without issue the 8th of April, 1770, 
was succeeded by his eldest brother Charles, from whom it passed into the family of 
Bracebridge ; * by them it was sold a few years ago to some parties in the neighbourhood of 
Warwick, who leased it to its present occupier. 

The mansion, which is built of brick, with stone quoins and dressings, forms three sides 
of a square, and bears some resemblance to the letter E, a practice which originated in 

* Hutton, in his " History of Birmingham," states that 
Sir Lister Holt, taking advantage of his brother's necessities, 
induced him to cut off the entail, in order that the estate 
might pass away from his family. Thus, he adds, "an 
ancient race, which sprung from the anvil, and sported upon 
an estate of 12,00(M. a-year, is now sunk into its pristine 

obscurity ; for its head, Thomas Holt (perhaps Sir Thomas), 
at this day (1812) thumps at the anvil for bread, in the fabrica- 
tion of spades as amiable a man as any of his race ; and 
the only baronet who ever shaped a shovel may take a melan- 
choly ramble for many miles upon the lands of his ancestors, 
but cannot call a single foot of it his own." 


compliment to Queen Elizabeth, and was not altogether in disuse during the reign of her 
successor. The eastern or principal front derives its principal features from the massive 
character and judicious display of details ; and a highly pleasing effect is given to the struc- 
ture by its gables, numerous picturesque chimneys, bay windows to the wings, and, especially, 
the stately grandeur of the central and side towers. 

The south, or garden front, is also an interesting portion of the structure ; the appended 
vignette affords a correct idea 
of it. It will be seen that its 
principal feature is an open ar- 
cade, around which are several 
antique carved seats, so placed 
as to facilitate views of the gar- 
den, with its quaint and vene- 
rable trees and shaded walks. 
Passing through a small door at 
the termination of this arcade, 
we step upon a noble terrace, 
which extends the whole length 
of the back or western front of 
the edifice. From this point we obtain an unbroken view of the park in nearly its whole 
extent. The house is, from this side, very imposing, from its great width and massive 

Returning to the principal front, passing through the great doorway, which is ele- 
vated on four steps and is of good character, we enter the great hall. It is richly decorated ; 
the fireplace is remarkably fine ; along the sides are ranged various old pictures, which, 
combined with antique furniture profusely scattered about, take us back to the days of its 
early grandeur, when the mansion was the residence of a true and hospitable baronial lord. 
The apartments are fitted up in good keeping ; the dining and drawing-rooms, entered from 
the hall, retain their ancient aspects ; the panelling and ceilings are in excellent preservation, 
the chimneypieces comparatively unimpaired by time, and the whole interior is of a character 
sound and true. 

We must not omit to mention that the fine oak staircase received considerable injury 
during the great civil war. It appears that a cannon was fired from a little eminence at a 
short distance from the south side of the house, the shot from which, after passing through 
two strong walls, lodged on the first landing of the great staircase, shattering in its course a 
considerable portion of the richly-carved balustrade which, as a memorial of the event, has 
not been since repaired. 


The house is reached from the main road by a noble avenue of finely-grown trees ; these 
extend for nearly half a mile. 
The entrance gates, of which 
we append an engraving, are 
directly opposite the very vene- 
rable church ; and this church 
must be associated with the 
mansion, for it is the resting- 
place of nearly all its ancient 
owners. It is dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Paul, and consists 
of a nave with north and south 
aisles, a spacious chancel, and 
a substantial tower, surmounted by a tall spire, at the western extremity of the nave. The 
church bears evidence of being built at two distinct periods, or, at least, of having undergone 
considerable alterations. We find, according to Dugdale, that the south aisle was built by 
Henry de Erdington ; for in the 12th Edward II. he gave a certain rent-seek of vid. per 
annum to the maintenance of the gutter betwixt the church and it. In this grant he terms it 
" Nova capella beatae Marise de Aston ; " thus proving it to have been (with the north aisle, 
which is precisely similar) erected during the prevalence of the decorated style. But, 
unfortunately, owing to some injudicious repairs a few years since, the whole of the win- 
dows, of which there are three, on each side, and one larger, at the eastern and western 
ends, were deprived of both mullions and tracery, and, no doubt, at the same time of several 
interesting portions of stained glass, of which we have a description in Dugdale, but which is 
now nowhere to be found. This, combined with the loss of the high-pitched roofs, gives a 
poor appearance to the interior. The tower and spire are by far the finest portions of the 
building, and add greatly to the beauty of the whole. The tower is of four stories, with 
battlements and pinnacles ; but its chief peculiarity is the belfry story, which is decorated on 
three sides by six long and narrow compartments, the two centre ones of which are pierced, and 
have louvre boards for the better distribution of sound ; on the fourth or south side are only 
four of these compartments, the space for the two others being taken up by an octagonal 
turret staircase, that adjoins this portion of the tower. The spire is octagonal, plain, but of 
a good substantial character ; and from its details, with those of the tower, which exhibit some 
deviations from the true principles of pointed architecture, we may safely trace their erection 
to the early portion of the sixteenth century. 

The pillars and arches of the nave, of which there are four on each side, seem to belong, 
like the exterior, to a transition period, as their general character is decorated, whilst there 


are several mouldings that may be ascribed to the early English period. Among the modern 
barbaric " restorations and improvements " to which this fine church has been subjected, may 
be mentioned the plaster ceilings, the altar-screen of Roman design, and an odious assemblage 
of pews of all shapes and sizes ; but it may be hoped, from the good spirit that has lately 
directed the introduction of some ancient stalls from Leicester at the entrance of the chancel, 
a richly-carved lecturn, and last, though not least, the establishment of a choral service, that 
in a few years this noble edifice may resume its pristine splendour and magnificence. 

In monumental architecture this church will be found to possess an interesting series. 
The most ancient, from the character of its design, evidently belongs to the latter part of the 
fourteenth century ; it is supposed to be to the memory of one of the now extinct but once 
powerful family of Arden. It is an altar-tomb of alabaster, supporting effigies of a knight 
and lady, and is situated against the north wall of the chancel. Towards the eastern end of 
the north aisle are two monuments that will next require our attention. The first, an altar- 
tomb, around the side of which are angels bearing shields, and still retaining traces of their 
original painting and gilding ; on the top are the painted effigies of William Holt, Esq. and 
Joan his wife, and the inscription (now obliterated) originally bore the date of 1423. 
Against the north wall, near this tomb, is a mural monument containing the effigies of 
Edward Holt, Esq. and Dorothy his wife, under an arch of Roman design, kneeling one on 
each side of a small lecturn or desk. This monument bears the date of 1592. In the 
pavement near is a large slab, containing the effigies in brass of the Thomas Holt and his 
wife Margaret, who, as we have mentioned, was Justice of North Wales during the reign of 
Henry the Eighth. The next monument demanding notice is situated against the north wall 

of the chancel, and forms the subject of the accom- 
panying vignette : it is of a bold character, but, in 
its minor parts, exhibits a sad falling off in execu- 
tion as compared with the more ancient ones to 
which we have referred.* It is to the memory of 
Edward Devereux, Esq. of Castle Bromwich Hall in 
this neighbourhood (a seat now possessed by the 
Earl of Bradford), and the Lady Katherine his wife, 
and was erected A.D. 1627 : it bears their effigies, 
with those of their children, painted and habited in 
the costume of the early part of the seventeenth century. There are also two other 
monuments, which, though not immediately connected with the text, may not be left 
unnoticed. One of these bears the effigies of Sir Thomas de Erdington and his lady, Joyce ; 

* For the several drawings which accompany and illus- 
trate this account of Aston Hall and the church, we are 

indebted to Mr. Allen Edward Everitt, an excellent artist 
of Birmingham. 


the other is also supposed to belong to a member of the same family. They originally stood 
in the south aisle, which was erected by their ancestor, Henry de Erdington, in the reign of 
Edward II., and used as a chanting chapel for the family, but were removed a few years 
since to their present position on the south side of the chancel. They are both good speci- 
mens of the monumental sculpture of the middle ages. 

Recently a beautiful memorial window of stained glass has been erected at the west end of 
the south aisle, which for excellence of design and richness and harmony of colour, is hardly- 
surpassed by the best specimens of ancient days. 

Among the very numerous series of mural monuments with which this church abounds, 
we need only observe that there are several to the different members of the Holt family, and 
one, in particular, to the good and worthy knight Sir Thomas, the builder of the present hall ; 
but from their wholly unsuitable character for a Christian temple, and from their abounding 
in pagan emblems and decorations, they serve only to disfigure the walls of the sacred and 
very venerable edifice. 



EAUCHAMP CHAPEL ranks among the most exquisitely beautiful examples 
of sacred edifices in Great Britain. It Avas founded by that famous 
Earl of Warwick, who, early in the fifteenth century, upheld the 
glories of his line, and transmitted his abundant honours unimpaired 
to his posterity, the Talbots, the Dudleys, the Willoughbys, the 
Grevilles, and the Nevils.* 

The purpose of its erection was to supply a fitting mausoleum for 
the noble family of its founder ; yet few of his successors are there 
interred; for, having subsequently become entitled to the patronage of the Holy Abbey 
of Tewkesbury, they preferred it as their place of sepulture and the great Earl is 
nearly the only one of his proud and lofty race whose ashes moulder beneath the fretted 
roof of the graceful and magnificent structure. It was commenced 21st Henry V!.. 
and finished 3d Edward IV. ; occupying a period of twenty-one years, and costing 
2,481 4s. 7d. an enormous sum, of which some idea may be formed from the fact, that, 
at the time, " the value of a fat ox was 13s. 4d." The Chapel was not, however, 
consecrated until the loth Edward IV., when John Hales, Bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, Avas specially commissioned for the purpose by John Carpenter, Bishop of 

The Church of St. Mary, Warwick to which the Beauchamp Chapel is attached is 
of very early date. Of its foundation, prior to the Conquest, there is conclusive 

* Richard de Beauchamp was born on the 28th of January. 
1381, and succeeded his father in the Earldom of Warwick in 
1401. At the coronation of Henry IV., he was created a 
Knight of the Bath, being then only 19 years of age. " When 
scarce more than a youth," he suppressed the rebellion in 
Wales, under Owen Glendower, whose standard he took in 
battle. During the whole of the reign of the fourth Henry, he 
was one of the most prominent, honourable, and useful " pil- 
lars of the state ;" and, at the coronation of Henry the 5th, he 
was constituted Lord High Steward ; in 1415, he was declared 

Captain of Calais, and Governor of the Marches of 1'icardv : 
subsequently, he became tutor to the young Prinri! Henry, and 
on the death of the Duke of Bedford 14 Hen. VI. he was 
appointed Regent of France, and Lieutenant-General of tht 
King's forces in that realm and the Duchy of Normandy. 
He died in the Castle of Rouen, April 30, 143917 Henry VI. 
His body was conveyed to England, and deposited in the 
Church of St. Mary, " in a fair chest made of stone." until 
the Chapel was prepared for its reception. 


evidence ; for in " the Survey," it was certified to have " one hyde of land in Myton, 
given to it by Turchil de Warwick, which land was then valued at ten shillings." It was 
made collegiate by Hen. de Newburg, first Earl of Warwick ; and his son Roger, in 
1123, largely augmented its revenues. 

The riches and piety of subsequent Earls of Warwick contributed to its grandeur and 
importance ; and at the survey, 26th Hen. VIII., previous to the dissolution, its revenues 
were certified to amount to 334 2s. 3d. A fire, in 1694, destroyed the whole of the 
edifice, except the choir and the Beauchamp Chapel ; and when the Church was rebuilt 
it was from a design of Sir Christopher Wren. It is, nevertheless, conspicuous for no 
architectural beauty, except the fine proportions of its Tower. 

The choir a part of the ancient church is a rare example of the architecture of the 
period. It was built by Thomas de Beauchamp, about the 43rd Edward III. ; and his 
remains, with those of his Countess, a daughter of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, were 
interred in a sumptuous tomb, placed in the centre of the edifice erected for their 
reception. Nearly five hundred years have passed since the Earl was laid there, and 
the mason, the gilder, and the sculptor, laboured to perpetuate the memory of a great 
soldier, who led the van at Crecy, bled at Poictiers, " did great service in a sea-fight," 
" warred against the infidels," and drove a besieging army from before Calais, by the mere 
sound of his name, yet the monument endures almost unimpaired by time ; telling its 
high tale of glory after a lapse of half a thousand years.* 

A vaulted corridor extends from the transept nearly the whole length of the choir on 
its north side. This has been divided by a screen of blank panelling, and the eastern 
portion formed into a "Vestrie." The remainder is used as a north entrance to the 
Church, having also an entrance into the Chapter House. This building is hexagonal 
on its exterior end, and is now appropriated as a mausoleum, to which those who 
love the muse will resort as to a place of pilgrimage, for here repose the earthly 
remains of that " servant to Queen Elizabeth, Chancellor to King James, and friend 
to Sir Philip Sidney," whose name will be as imperishable as that of the dear brother 
of his heart, whose friendship was the climax of his fame, and the consummation of all 
his ambitious hopes. The monument to the memory of Fulke Grevill consists of a 
sarcophagus, placed beneath a heavy canopy, supported by Corinthian columns. It is 
a heavy and ungraceful erection rendered picturesque, however, by the ancient helmets 

* Thomas de Beauchamp died of the pestilence at Calais, I Earl and his Countess finely sculptured are laid upon the 
on the 13th of November, 1370, at the age of 63. He had 

retired from public life, but hearing that the English army, 
under the Duke of Lancaster, lay in camp, perishing from 
famine and disease, and refused to fight the French, by whom 
they were surrounded, he instantly embarked for France, 
where his " bare appearance so alarmed the enemy, that they 
commenced an instant retreat." Recumbent figures of the 

monument which occupies the centre of the choir. A fine 
brass of his second son, Thomas, and Margaret, his wife, was 
preserved from the fire of 1694, and is now placed against the 
east wall of the transept, and near the entrance to the Chapel. 
It is a beautiful specimen of the costume of the period, and 
has been engraved in Waller's recent publication. 


and glaives laid upon it, and the moth-eaten banners, and rusted armour, that hang above 

the tomb. 

The entrance to the Beauchamp Chapel is by a descent of several steps, from the 

south transept of the Church, beneath a doorway of finely-carved stone the work of a 

native artist, "a mason of Warwick," in 1704. 
Entered, the spectator beholds a sepulchral chapel, 
built in the " style of the later Gothic," of limited 
extent its size being 58 feet in length by 25 in 
breadth, and its height being 32 feet but of sur- 
passing beauty. The light is supplied by three 
large windows in the upper part of the side walls 
(north and south), on the west by a window which 
looks into St. Mary's Church, and by a large 
window on the east. Formerly, they were all 
richly adorned Avith painted glass, of which some 
valuable relics yet remain. The east window is, 
however, even now, nearly perfect, and may be 
considered one of the finest examples of the art 
to be found in the kingdom. " Indeed," (we quote 
from a writer in " The Antiquarian and Architec- 
tural Year Book,") there are few windows of 

painted glass remaining in ecclesiastical or other build- 
ings in England that can, for its dimensions, exceed, 

either in beauty or general treatment, this Eastern 

Window of the Beauchamp Chapel." Its value has 

been diminished by carelessness in repairs ; some parts 

having been displaced : but the figures, which form 

its primary objects, are gorgeous specimens of art, 

on many accounts of rare value to the antiquary. 

The ceiling of the Chapel is ornamented with groined 

ribs, at the intersections of which are bosses elegantly 

painted and gilt. Old oak seats, richly carved, antique 

desks, niches which, according to Dugdale, formerly 

held images of gold, each of the weight of 20 Ibs. and 

various other objects minor, though of considerable 

interest demand attention ; but their examination 

may be postponed until a small oratory of exquisite 

beauty has been inspected. It is reached by a short flight of stone steps the roof is 


fan-work, groined peculiarly light and elegant; and a range of high and narrow- 
windows open into the Chapel. Scattered about are some reliques save for their 
antiquity, out of keeping with the peaceful and secluded character of the small 
confessional glaives and head-pieces one of which bears indisputable evidence that 
the wearer died not in his bed. From this oratory, some half-dozen steps, " worn by the 
knees of fervent devotees," afford ascent to a small confessional, formed in the thickness 
of the south wall of the choir. Both these interesting objects, are represented, by wood- 
cuts, on the preceding page. The ceiling and sides partake of the elegant character 
already described ; and here could the holy father, through a small opening, unseen, 
witness the elevation of the Host, or listen to the o'erburthened penitent, 

The grand object of attraction in the Beauchamp Chapel, however, is the gorgeous 
tomb of its founder. It is an altar-tomb, of Purbeck marble, bearing the recumbent effigy 
of the Great Earl, in fine latten brass, gilt. His 
head, uncovered, rests upon a helmet, and at 
his feet are a Bear and a Griffon. The tomb 
is surmounted by one of the few " hearses " 
that yet remain in our churches. It consists 
of six hoops of brass, kept extended by five 
transverse brass rods, on which formerly was 
hung a pall " to keep the figure reverently from 
the dust." Around the tomb, in niches, are 
fourteen figures, in " divers vestures, called 
weepers " friends and relatives of the deceased, 
who mourn his loss. Between each weeper are 
smaller niches, raised upon pillars, containing 
whole length figures of angels, holding scrolls 

Sit too laus ti glona : toftmctts mtscricortia. 

The following inscription is on the edge of the tomb, running twice round, in the old 
English character, and freely interspersed with the Earl's crest, the bear and ragged staff: 

" Preieth devoutly for the Sowel whom god assoille of one of the moost worshipful Knyghtes in his dayes of monhode and 
conning Richard Beauchamp late Eorl of Warrewik lord de spenser of Bergavenny, and of mony other grete lordships, whos body 
resteth here under this tumbe, in a fulfeire vout of Stone set on the bare rooch, thewhich visited with longe siknes in the Castel 
of Roan therinne deceased ful cristenly the last day of April the yer of oure lord god M. CCCCxxxxix, he being at that tyme 
Lieutenant gen'al and governer of the Roialme of Fraunce and of the Duchie of Normandie. by sufficient Autorite of oure SoVaigne 
lord the King Harry the vi. thewhich body with grete deliberacon' and ful worshipful condiut Bi See And by lond was broght to 
Warrewik the iiii day of October the yer aboueseide, and was leide with ful Bolenne exequies in a feir chest made of Stone in 
this Chirche afore the west dore of this Chapel according to his last will And Testament therein to rest til this Chapel by him 
devised i' his lief were made. Al thewhuche Chapel founded On the Rooch, And alle the Membres thereof his Executours dede 


fully make and Apparaille by the Auctorite of his Seide last Wille And Testament And thereafter By the same Auctorite They 
dide Translate fful worshipfully the seide Body into the vout aboveseide, honured be god therfore."* 

The effigy may be considered as one of the finest works of this class executed during 
the middle ages, and it derives additional interest from the fact of the original contract 
for its construction being still in existence. Of this beautiful work the late C. A. Stothard 
executed four views, in his magnificent volume on the Monumental Effigies of Great 
Britain, in a spirit worthy of so fine a subject. He ascertained that the ponderous figure 
of latten or bronze which lay upon the altar-tomb was loose, and with considerable effort 
succeeded in turning it over, when the armour at the back was found to be as carefully 
and accurately represented as in front, having all the parts of a suit, its straps and 
fastenings, displayed with singular minuteness. It is, in this respect, a perfectly unique 
effigy, and of great value to the historic painter, or student in ancient armour. On the 
preceding page we have given the two views of the effigy, as pictured by Mr. Stothard. 

The Chapel contains other monuments of rare beauty and exceeding interest. The 
most remarkable is that to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester " Queen Elizabeth's 
Leicester" and his Countess. It is erected against the north wall, and consists of a 
heavy canopy, profusely ornamented, supported by Corinthian pillars, beneath which is 
an altar-tomb supporting the recumbent figures that of the Earl being in armour, over 
which is a mantle bearing the badge of the Order of the Garter on the left shoulder, the 
French order of St. Michael on the left breast, and the Garter is round the knee that of 
the Countess is attired in the robes of a Peeress, a circlet of jewels round the head, and 
wearing the high ruff of the period. A Latin inscription gives us in full the proud titles 
of the famous favourite of the " Maiden Queene," who " gave up his sonic to God his 
Saviour on the 4th day of September, in the year of Salvation, 1588," and informs us also 
that " his most sorrowful wife, Leetitia, daughter of Francis Knolles, Knight of the Order 
of the Garter, and Treasurer to the Queen, through a sense of conjugal love and fidelity 
hath put up this monument to the best and dearest of husbands." 

* Dugdale has preserved a curious and interesting document 
in connexion with the Chapel, being the " Covenants of Agree- 
ment between the Executors of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, viz. Thomas Huggeford, Nich. Rodye, and Wm. 
Berkswell, and the severall Artists that were employed in the 
most exquisite parts of its fabrick and ornaments as also of 
the costly Tombe before specified, bearing date xiii Junii, 32 
H. C." 

These are the covenants of John Essex, Marbler ; Will. 
Austen, Founder ; Thomas Stevyns, Coppersmith; Bartholomew 
Lambespring, Dutchman and Goldsmith. John Prudde, of 
Westminster, Glasier, further covenanted to glase all the 
windows in the new Chappell in Warwick, with Glasse beyond 
the Seas, and with no Glasse of England ; and that in the 
finest wise, with the best, cleanest, and strongest glasse of 
beyond the Sea that may be had in England, and of the finest 

colours of blew, yellow, red, purpure, sanguine, and violet, and 
of all other colours that shall be most necessary, and best to 
make rich and embellish the matters, Images, anil stories that 
shall be delivered and appointed by the said Executors by 
patterns in paper, afterwards to be newly traced and pictured 
by another Painter in rich colour at the charges of the said 
Glasier. All which proportions the said John Prudde must 
make perfectly to fine, glase, eneylin it, and finely and strongly 
set it in lead and souder, as well as any Glasse is in England. 
Of white Glasse, Green Glasse, black Glase, he shall put in as 
little as shall be needfull for the shewing and setting forth of 
the matters, Images, and storyes. And the said Glasier shall 
take charge of the same Glasse, wrought and to be brought, to 
Warwick, and set up there, in the windows of the said 
Chapell ; the Executors paying to the said Glasier for every 
foot of Glasse ii s. and so for the whole xci li. s. x d. 


Of the other tombs " of note," may be mentioned that to Ambrose Dudley, the virtuous 
brother of Elizabeth's Peer ; that to the infant son of Robert Dudley, " a noble impe," a 
" childe of grete parentage, but of farre greter hope and towardnes ;" and that to the Lady 
Katherine Leveson, one of the Dudleys, who " taking notice of these Tombes of her noble 
Ancestors being much blemisht by consuming time, but more by the rude hands of 
impious people, were in danger of utter mine by the decay of this Chapell, if not timely 
prevented, did in her life time give fifty pounds for its speedy repair." 

In all respects the Beauchamp Chapel ranks among the most interesting of the 
venerable Ecclesiastical remains yet existing in Great Britain. Time has done it 
little injury ; and it escaped the perils incident to the civil war when all external 
tokens of piety were considered insults to the Deity they were designed to honour. 
Moreover, its history is nearly perfect: the very estimates, bills, and discharges of 
the builders, the gilders, and the glaziers may be examined, in the actual presence of 
the works they executed centuries ago. 

Viewed in association with " the Castle," of which it may be said almost to form 
a part, its importance is greatly enhanced. And, in reference merely to actual beauty 
of the design, and the exquisite character of the work, it may be said to vie with 
any structure of the kind, not only in Great Britain, but in Europe. 





IIARLECOTE famous in association with the early history of 
William Shakspere has undergone little change since 
he who was " for all time " wandered along the thick- 
hedged lanes. So primitive is the "ancient neighbour- 
hood," that Fancy may, almost unbidden, call up the old 
Wjf glories of the place, may hear the voice of Sir Thomas 
Lucy chiding his keepers for the loss of his fallow-deer, 
and the half-suppressed " chuckle " of an unnoticed by- 
stander who, thereafter, Avas to fill the Avorld with his 
fame. The Mansion seems quite unaltered ; the village 
church precisely as it was at " the Reformation ; " the 
humbler dwellings, of red brick, are only a little older 
the park palings merely made picturesque by over- 
growing lichen ; and the Park, as well as the " sweet Avon," exactly as they were two 
centuries and a half ago ; the one 
" flowing gently ; " the other sup- 
plying, as of yore, many 

"An oak, whose boughs are moss'd with age, 
And high top bald with dry antiquity ; " 

while the same deer " dappled 
fools " only look more conscious 
than they did, of assured safety in 

"their assigned and native dwelling place." 

Art and Nature seem both to 
have stopped short of all "im- 
provement ; " there has been no 

need of the one to disturb the renown which the locality receives from the other; 
even the " stocks " that stand under a group of " Patrician trees " at Hampton Lucy, are 
suffered to die of natural decay; and it is as certain that the "bonny sweet Robin," 



whose song we heard from the hawthorn in the churchyard is the progeny of him who 
sung there when Elizabeth was queen, as that the lord of the mansion is the descendant 
of that very Sir Thomas Lucy who sat in judgment upon the youth who 

" obscur'd his contemplation 
Under the veil of wildness." 

This unity of character has been most carefully preserved in the new buildings erected 
on the estate, of which the annexed wood-cut will afford evidence. 

It is difficult to descend to simple facts 
while describing a neighbourhood so sugges- 
tive of thought so redolent of fancy. The 
Lucys, who occupy to-day the manor in which 
they lived three hundred years ago " good 
old English gentlemen" of the present, as 
of the olden time have inherited, without 
break, from father to son ; adding little to 
their hereditary property, and losing no part 
of it by carelessness, profusion, or vice ; 
generally, they seem to have been peaceable 
and liberal manorial lords, studious to make 
their tenantry prosperous and their depend- 
ants comfortable; dwelling apart from the 
bustle of action, and the stir of contentious 
life, even rumours of " oppression and deceit " 

seem rarely to have reached them ; " exempt from public haunt," they passed their 
days happily and slept together a long line of kindly, if not great, men under the 
roof tree of the little church where monuments loftier than their own ambitions have 
been raised to perpetuate their names.* 

The history of Charlecote and its Lords, is given with great minuteness by Dugdale. 
Charlecote, Cherlecote, or Cerlecote, as it is written in Domesday Book, was, previous to 
the Conquest, in the possession of one Saxi, but afterwards became the property of the 
Earl of Mellent, and doubtless came from him to Henry de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, 

* While standing among the graves of generations of the 
family, and noting down the words in which were recorded 
their claims to live in memory, we heard suddenly from a 
young woman who guided us to the church and who conveyed 
the sad intelligence with tearful eyes that on the very morn- 
ing of our visit another of the Lucys had been summoned to 
take his place among the dead. George Lucy, Esq., the Lord of 
Charlecote, died on the 1st of July, 1845 somewhat suddenly ; 

leaving, however, a son, not yet of age, to inherit the honours 
and estates. The circumstance was to us peculiarly unfortu- 
nate ; for Mr. Lucy had courteously offered to supply us with 
all the information in his power to give, concerning the neigh- 
bourhood and its several associations. We found that his loss 
was felt in the cottages almost as bitterly as in the mansion ; 
and obtained certain assurance that he, like his progenitors, 
had been a generous landlord, and a kind friend to the poor. 


whose son, Roger, (23rd Henry I.), gave half a hide of land lying in Cherlecote, with the 
tithes of the whole lordship, and " two mills " to his newly founded Collegiate Church of 
Warwick. He also enfeoffed Thurlestane de Montfort of large possessions in this county, 
whose son, Henry, with Alice de Harecourt, the widow of Robert de Montfort, his elder 
brother, gave all the village of Cherlecote to Walter the son of Thurlestane de Cherlecote, 
which grant was confirmed to him and his heirs by letters patent from Richard the First, 
with divers immunities and privileges thereto : all of which were ratified by King John, 
in the fifth year of his reign. From this Walter de Cherlecote (who was a knight), 
by Cecily, his wife, descended William, who assumed the name of Lucy, she perhaps being 
heir to some branch of that family. 

Our space may be better occupied than in carrying their history from this remote age 
to the present day. 

The Mansion was erected in 1558, by Thomas Lucy, who, in 1593, was knighted by 

Queen Elizabeth. It stands at a short distance from, 
and at some little elevation above, the river Avon. 
The building occupies three sides of a quadrangle, 
the fourth being formed by a handsome central Gate- 
house, which, with its octangular turrets and oriel 
window, constitutes an interesting portion of the facade, 
and as seen in the accompanying view, backed out by 
the Mansion and connected by the terrace wings, 
presents a very pleasing and picturesque appearance. 
The House retains its gables and angular towers, 
but has suffered from the introduction of the large and 
heavy sash-windows of the time of William III., or 

George I. The entrance porch runs the whole height of the building, and is ornamented 
by pilasters and a pierced parapet, having over the arched entrance the family arms 
and the crest at each angle. From this porch or loggia, you enter the Hall, of 
which Washington Irving in the " Sketch-book " gives a graphic description as it 
existed at the period of his visit. The present apartment, however, forms a portion 
of the extensive alterations and additions carried into effect by the refined taste of 
the late Mr. Lucy. The " Gallery " and " Organ " are gone, but the large and lofty 
proportions of the room, as also the huge Bay Window, are preserved. The interior 
of which we have given an engraving will convey an accurate idea of this fine Hall. 
In the centre, on a highly polished marble floor, stands a most elaborate and splendid 
table, purchased at the price of 1500 guineas from the late Mr. Beckford's collection at 
Fon thill, composed of lapis lazuli, jasper, &c., intermixed with the rarest marble: it 
is a worthy rival to that at Warwick Castle. The room contains many family 



portraits the most interesting of the collection being one which represents Sir Thomas, 
his lady, and his children, painted by Cornelius Jansen.* 

The Fire-place is modern, but of Elizabethan design, and finely carved. Above 
are busts of Sir Thomas Lucy the elder, and his son, and in the centre is one of Queen 
Elizabeth. The chairs, tables, &c., are all handsome, and strictly according in style 
with the Hall, which is connected by folding-doors with a fine oak staircase. The new 
apartments consist of a dining-room and drawing-room, serving also as a library. 

From the House we cross the quadrangle. This is laid out as an ornamental flower- 
garden, with very charming effect. From thence the Park is entered, which is agreeably 
diversified by hill and dale, wood and water. The Avon winds its way irregularly 
through the plain, while ever and anon the " careless herd " come sweeping by, calling 
up involuntarily to the mind remembrances of the " melancholy Jaques " and his sad 
musings, as, in " the forest of Arclen," 

" he lay along 

Under an oak, whose antique root peeps out 
Upon the brook that brawls along the wood." 

Under a close avenue of trees a private walk leads to a corner of the Park, where, 
snugly embosomed among " scented limes " stands the little Church of Charlecote 

with its belfry, simple as a dove- 
cote, and its somewhat grotesque 

There are three monuments 
each being of an elaborate and 
costly character, with no incon- 
siderable pretensions to merit as 
works of art. The one nearest the 
altar is that of the Sir Thomas Lucy 
who is reported to have "threat- 
ened " Shakspere with punishment 
for deer-stealing, and is said to 
have been the object of a lampopn 
penned by the " immortal bard." f The grave underneath contains also the ashes of his 

* The painting is so well described by Washington Irving 
that we quote his words : 

" The picture gives a lively idea of the costume and manners 
of the time. Sir Thomas is dressed in ruff and doublet ; white 
shoes with roses in them, and has a peaked yellow, or, as 
Master Slender would say, a cane-coloured beard. His lady is 
seated on the opposite side of the picture, in wide ruff and long 
stomacher, and the children have a most venerable stiffness and 
formality of dress. Hounds and spaniels are mingled in the 

family group ; a hawk is seated on his perch in the foreground, 
and one of the children holds a bow ; all intimating the knight's 
skill in hunting, hawking, and archery, so indispensable to an 
accomplished gentleman in those days." 

t It is now generally admitted, however, that the lines 

" A parliament member, a justice of peace, 

At home a poor scarecrow, in London an asse," 
were neither the whole nor a part written by Shakspere, 


lady. They are represented in the usual recumbent posture, on a tomb of variegated 
marble, their hands uplifted in prayer. He is clad in armour, the lady in the ruff 
and dress of the period. Two smaller figures are kneeling below, and a tablet of 
black marble in the recess above their tomb has the following touching and beautiful 
inscription : 

"Here entombed lyeth the Lady Joyce 
Lucy, wife of Sir Thomas Lucy, of Cherle- 
cote, in the County of Warwick, Knight, 
daughter and heir of Thomas Acton, of Sutton, 
in the County of Worcester, Esquire, who 
departed out of this wretched world to her 
heavenly kingdome, the tenth day of February 
in the year of our Lord God 1595, and of her 
age Ix and three. All the time of her life a 
true and faithfull servant of her good God, 
never detected of any crime or vice ; in reli- 
gion most sound ; in love to her husband 
most faithfull and true ; in friendship most 
constant ; to what in trust was committed to 
her most secret ; in wisdome excelling ; in 
governing of her house and bringing up of 
youth in the feare of God that did con- 
verse with her, most rare and singular. A 
great maintainer of hospitality ; greatly 

esteemed of her betters ; misliked of none unless of the envious. When all is spoken that can be said, a woman so furnished 
and garnished with virtue as not to be bettered, and hardly to be equalled by any. As she lived most virtuously, so she dyed 
most godly. Set down by him that best did know what hath been written to be true. THOMAS LUCY " 

Except the effigy, there is no tribute of any kind to the memory of Sir Thomas 
himself. On the opposite side of the chancel, in a small vestry, or chapel, stands the 
tomb of his son Thomas, erected by Dame Constance, his lady, daughter and heiress to 
Richard Kingsmill ; but having no inscription. It is one of the painted monuments of 
the period, and represents him armed, and in the usual recumbent attitude. On a 
pedestal in .front, is a smaller-sized kneeling effigy of his lady, and in two panels, one on 
either side, are the figures of eight daughters and six sons in low relief. In the chancel, 
also, is another monument carved very elaborately; where, under marble pillars and 

the lampoon containing no indications of genius ; it is a libel 
on the memory of the poet to assert that they were the offspring 
of his mind to say nothing of the "poorspite" they would have 
manifested, a feeling totally away from so great a soul. The 
story of Shakspere's early transgression and its consequences is 
thus related by Rowe : " An extravagance that he was guilty of 
first forced him out of his country, and that way of living 
which he had taken up ; and though it seemed at first to be a 
blemish upon his good manners, and a misfortune to him, yet it 
afterwards happily proved the occasion of exerting one of the 
greatest geniuses that ever was known in dramatic poetry. He 
had, by a misfortune common enough to young fellows, fallen 
into ill company, and, amongst them, some that made a frequent 
practice of deer-stealing, engaged him more than once in rob- 

bing a park that belonged to Sir Thomas Lucy, of Charlecote, 
near Stratford ; for this he was prosecuted by that gentleman, 
as he thought somewhat too severely ; and, in order to revenge 
that ill-usage, he made a ballad upon him." That Shakspere 
engaged in a frolic similar to the one related of him, is by no 
means improbable ; freaks of the kind are common enough to 
" young fellows ;" and although it is impossible to imagine 
that the poet took part in this, from any motive other than that 
love of risk and adventure inseparable from great minds in 
the bud, we may readily believe tradition to be in the main 
correct. That Sir Thomas Lucy was not a man of even poor 
understanding is sufficiently proved by the epitaph to the 
memory of his wife. 


arches, are the figures of his son Thomas and Alicia his wife, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Spenser, Esq., of Claverdon. The figures are gracefully disposed, and most 
beautifully executed ; all the details being highly finished. Behind, on one panel, is a 
bas-relief of a figure on horseback, and in a corresponding niche are sculptured shelves, 
on which are placed the works of various authors, the central niche being occupied by 
a very long Latin inscription, recording his virtues and death, which happened the 8th 
December 1640. A further inscription states that the monument was erected by his lady. 
In the church there are a circular plain font, apparently of very early date ; two 
small brasses of the 16th century, on the floor of the nave, and two bells in the wooden 
turret, one bearing the date of 1625. Beyond these it contains nothing worthy of notice. 
Yet, as long as one stone shall stand upon another, will the little plain Church of 
Charlecote be linked with a glorious memory of the past; the lofty trees that grow 
around it conceal it effectually from sight ; not so the Hall, which, standing on a gentle 
elevation above the Avon, is seen from all points of the adjacent scenery. It adjoins 
the pretty village of Wellsbourne ; near to which, on the road between Warwick and 
Stratford, commences a double avenue of finely-grown elm-trees, which reaches, for more 
than half a mile from the public road, to the house ; from Warwick it is distant six 
miles, and from Stratford five. The Avon winds immediately around the mansion, 

through the Park ; close to the entrance-gate it is 
crossed by a pretty bridge, which heightens the 
striking effect of the landscape. 

*2SJL^^ The whole neighbourhood, indeed, between Wells- 

bourne and Stratford, is full of beauty ; the land seems 
passing rich ; while, here and there, distant glances are 
caught of the Avon, or it accompanies the wayfarer 
along the road ; there are few more delightful walks 
in England and none so pregnant with " happy and 
glorious " associations. Amid these dells and by these 
hill-sides, was Shakspere taught of Nature. 

." Here, as with honey gathered from the rock, 
She fed the little prattler, and with songs 
Oft sooth'd his wondering ears ; with deep delight 
On her soft lap he sat and caught the sounds." 

Every step to the pilgrim seems " hallowed ground ;" he crosses the bridge, built by 
Sir Hugh Clopton during the reign of the 7th Harry, and is at once " at home " with 
Shakspere, who must have trodden upon these stones daily when a boy, and passed them 
often during his occasional visits to his birth-place, or when " good easy man" he 
retired hither from busy life, to die like the deer where he was roused. The very 
mystery in which his whole career seems inextricably involved, gives the fancy greater 


freedom : there is no check upon imagination as we tread the streets of the Avon's 
old town of Stratford, muse in the small chamber where he was born, think in the 
school-house where he was taught, or ponder in the church where his bones have 
lain for two centuries and a half, " unmoved." 

Yet the often-quoted passage from Steevens is almost as correct to-day as it was when 
he wrote it notwithstanding every " hole and corner " in England has been ransacked in 
the hope to find something that concerns him " all that is known with any degree of 
certainty concerning Shakspere is that he was born at Stratford-upon-Avon married, 
and had children there went to London, where he commenced actor, and wrote poems 
and plays returned to Stratford, made his will, died, and was buried." 

Of all the poet wrote, during a long and busy life, no scrap remains to our time ; 
and of his autographs but five are known to exist, three of which are affixed to his will 
in the Prerogative Office, Doctors' Commons. One of the latter is written in one corner of 
the three sheets of paper which form that document, and is much injured in consequence, 
the Christian name only being in any degree perfect ; the other two are rather cramped 
in style, and one is much confused in the last letters, as if an error had been made in the 
spelling. The finest and clearest autograph is that upon the fly-leaf of the Montaigne 
of Florio, in the British Museum, which has been known but a few years, and was 
secured to the National Library at the cost of one hundred pounds. The fifth is in the 
Library of the City of London at Guildhall, affixed to a deed of bargain and sale of a 
dwelling-house, in the precinct of Blackfriars, to one Henry Walker, dated llth March 
1613 ; it is written on the slip of parchment inserted to hold the seal, and is therefore 
cramped ; it, however, cost the Corporation of London forty-five pounds more than was 
paid for that now in the British Museum. There was a sixth known to be in existence 
to the counterpart of this deed, of which a fac-simile was published by Malone, and 
which came into the possession of Garrick, at whose death it could not be found. 

The small chamber of the humble house in which he was born is still preserved, 
comparatively unimpaired. It stands in Henley-street, and is kept as " a show house," 
by an aged woman who lives in the back apartments. It was some years ago a butcher's 
shop, and in possession of Mrs. Hart, a lineal descendant of Shakspere by his sister's 
side, who, upon leaving the house, whitewashed the room to obliterate the names which 
were pencilled over the walls by the many visitors. As this was done "at the last 
pinch " in the evening before quitting, no size was mixed with the wash, and the next 
occupant, with great patience, re-washed the walls, took off the coat of white, and the 
pencilled names became again visible ; among them are those of Byron, Scott, the 
Countess Guccioli, Washington Irving, and a host of others ; the effect of the pencilling 
upon the walls and ceiling, which is very low, is singularly curious : it looks as if they 
were covered with fine spider-web, so very close is the writing of the various names. 

Of Shakspere's house, " New Place," where he retired after the turmoil of London life, 



in the gardens of which he planted the famous mulberry-tree, and from whence he was 
borne to his last home in the venerable church, was totally destroyed in 1757 by a 
certain " Rev. Mr. Gastrell," whose want of reverence to all the world holds dear, will 
ever deprive his name of any other share of it than the prefix it bears. The whole 
history of the transaction is disgraceful in the highest degree the more so as the man 
was in holy orders. The house was sold to him in 1751, on the death of Sir Hugh 
Clopton, who had resided in it. Five years afterwards, Gastrell became tired of showing 
the mulberry-tree, which Sir Hugh delighted in possessing, and by way of saving himself 
any further trouble, as well as to vex the Stratford people, with whom he was not on 
good terms, he cut it down, and sold it for firewood. In the year following he rased the 
house to the ground for the most discreditable of reasons a refusal to pay poor's rates. 

But the church the church in which, in 1564, he was baptised, and where in 1616, 
just 52 years afterwards, he was buried still exists, not only uninjured but skilfully and 
judiciously renovated. Here the great object of attraction is the famous bust, " by 
Gerard Johnson." It was executed, doubtless, by a literal copyist, who, if he had not 
the high talent of a great sculptor who endows his work with traces of the mind, will, 
at least, faithfully preserve all peculiarities of form and feature. The head as here given, 
if not lit up with the soul of the great Poet, is not unworthy of his calmer moments ; 
the forehead is ample, and the brain large, well-developed, and altogether characteristic 
of that evenness of temper which, combined with unequalled genius, gave him the title 
of " the gentle Shakspere." The great breadth of the upper lip, which might be objected 
to as unnatural, finds its fellow in that of another genius, the Shakspere of the North- 
Walter Scott. 

The " bones " moulder underneath the chancel ; and the memorable inscription 
remains uninjured upon the slab, 

" Good frencl, for Jesus sake forbear, 
To digg the dust encloased hear ; 
Blest be ye man yt spares the stones, 
And cvrst be he yt moves rny bones." * 

Although the history of Shakspere is not necessarily connected with our subject 
a visit to Charlecote, the seat of the Lucys it was impossible to consider the 
neighbourhood apart from the great genius who has made it famous for all time. 

* Mr. Wheeler, a most intelligent gentleman of Stratford, 
who has given much time and thought to all subjects connected 
with Shakspere's history, and by whom we had the advantage 
of being accompanied to the church directed our attention to 
the fact, that formerly a charnel-house adjoined the chancel, 
from which there was a communicating door. Here the bones 
of the neglected or forgotten were gathered : 

" The vault 

To whose foul mouth no healthsome air comes in, 

****** an ancient receptacle, 
Where for these many hundred years, the bones 
Of all my buried ancestors are packed." 

And it is by no means unlikely that the frequent contemplation 
of a scene so humiliating, and of objects so revolting, may 
have induced the anathema, 

" Cvrst be he yt moves my bones." 












OMBE ABBEY, the ancient and venerable seat of the Earls of Craven, is 
situate in a pleasant valley on the banks of the river, about five miles 
from Coventry. The Lordship of Smite, of which the manor at the time 
of the Conquest formed part, was, during the reign of " the Confessor," 
in the possession of Richard de Camvell, who, according to Dugdale, 
"being a devout and pious man, and much affecting the Cistertian Monks, 
whose Order had then been but newly transplanted into England ; and finding 
that part thereof which is situate in the valley to be full of woods, and far from 
any public passage ; as also low and solitary, and so, consequently, more fit for 
religious persons, gave unto Gilbert, Abbot of the Monastery of our blessed Lady 
of Waverley in Surrey, and to the Convent of that place, all this Lordship of Smite, 
there to found an Abbey of the Cistertian Order. Whereupon they presently began to 
build, and out of their own convent planted some monks here, dedicating the church thereof 
to the blessed Virgin also, and calling it the Abbey of Cumbc, in respect of its low and 
hollow situation ; the word Cumen in the British signifying Vallis or Convallis, as doth 
Cumbe and Combe in the Saxon." 

The monastery having been thus founded, its power was augmented by various other 
" pious and bountiful gifts ;" among the rest, in the time of Henry II., the Earl of Leicester 
became so liberal a patron, " that the monks allowed the said earl to be reputed the principal 
founder," and agreed to "perform for him and his heirs such duties in his life- time and death 
as for their chief founder." Thus richly endowed, and pleasantly placed among fertile fields, 
thick woods, and beside a productive river, the monks of Combe continued to enjoy life until 
the "killing frost" of the dissolution not only nipped the shoots, but destroyed the root, of 
the flourishing tree. 

The abbey with its estates then became the property of the Earl of Warwick, to whom it 


was granted by Edward VI. ; and after his attainder, a lease of " the site, and divers lands 
belonging thereto," was granted to Robert Keylway, who dying (23d Elizabeth), left a sole 
daughter and heir, who married John Harrington, Esq., afterwards Lord Harrington,* whose 
daughter inheriting, became the wife of Edward Earl of Bedford ; from her, "in consequence 
of the profuse expenditure in which she indulged," Combe Abbey passed by purchase into 
the family of Craven, in whose possession it has since remained. 

The family of Craven was, at a very early period, seated at Appletreewick, at Craven in 
Yorkshire. In 1611, Sir William Craven, knight and alderman, was Lord Mayor of London ; 
his son, William, having served in the army with distinction, was knighted in 1626; soon 
afterwards elevated to the peerage as Baron Craven of Hampstead Marshall, Berks ; and in 
1663 created Earl of Craven. This heroic ancestor of the family is immortal in romance as 
the leading champion of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the eldest daughter of James I., who, 
having married Frederic, the Elector Palatine, became for a short time a queen, when the 
revolted states, in their attempt to shake off the yoke of the Emperor Ferdinand II., advanced 
her husband to the regal dignity. The battle of Prague was fatal to their fortunes, the result 
having been to deprive the elector of his hereditary rank as well as his crown, and to send 
him forth an outcast and a wanderer, asking the aid of such cavaliers as sympathised with 
fallen greatness. The appeal was answered by many brave knights, called around the banner 
of the dethroned monarch chiefly by the charms and virtues of his British wife ; and foremost 
among them was the Lord Craven. They were foiled in their hopes, however ; the unhappy 
king died, and his widow returned to England, where, it is said, she privately married her 
gallant champion, and to whom she bequeathed a fine collection of paintings, chiefly portraits, 
which still adorn the long gallery at Combe Abbey. 

The earldom became extinct in 1690, but the barony continued in the family ; to which 
succeeded, in 1769, the sixth baron, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Augustus Earl of 
Berkeley, afterwards the Margravine of Anspach. William, his son, the seventh baron, was, 

* It was part of the plot of the conspirators implicated 
in the Gunpowder Plot to hasten into Warwickshire, seize 
the person of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I., 
and proclaim her Queen ; and, on the discovery of the plot, 
they did so " hasten into Warwickshire " (it is surmised to 
Combe Abbey, where probably the princess then was) ; but 
the vigilance of Sir John Harrington secured her from their 
hands. In a work published in 1833 "Lives of Eminent 
and Illustrious Englishmen," edited by J. G. Cunningham 
we find the following interesting particulars relative to the 
son of this Lord Harrington : 

"John, Lord Harrington, born 1591, died 161 3, was eldest 
son of that Lord Harrington to whose care King James com- 
mitted the education of his daughter Elizabeth. While a boy, 
he spoke French and Italian with fluency, and was distin- 
guished for the extent, variety, and accuracy of his learning. 

During a tour which he made on the Continent, he is said to 
have excited the deadly enmity of the Jesuits by his ardent 
attachment to the reformed doctrines, and by his bold and 
eager avowal of them in public ; and it was supposed his 
premature death was occasioned by poison, administered 
during his residence abroad ; but it is extremely probable the 
whole of this statement may be referred to the violent reli- 
gious prejudices and antipathies of the times. On succeeding 
to the family title and estates, he honourably discharged all 
the debts which his father had contracted by his magnificent 
style of housekeeping. He was eminently pious, spending 
great part of the day in religious meditation and exercises, 
and devoting the tenth part of his income to charitable 
purposes. " He died in the twenty-second year of his age, 
and his estate descended to his two sisters, Lucy, Countess of 
Bedford, and Anne, wife of Sir Robert Chichester." 


on the 13th of June, 1801, created Viscount Uffington and Earl Craven ; in 1807 he married 
Louisa, daughter of John Brunton, Esq. of Norwich a lady who had previously "graced the 
British stage," whose talents and virtues gave additional lustre to the position to which her 
marriage raised her, and whose name was not more honoured and respected when elevated to 
high rank than it had been when fulfilling the duties of a comparatively humble station. 
This estimable lady became a widow in 1825; when, the Earl of Craven dying, he was 
succeeded by his son, the present earl, who in 1835 married the Lady Emily Grimston, the 
second daughter of the Earl of Verulam. 

The Abbey is, as we have stated, distant from Coventry about five miles ; a plain 
but neat stone erection forms the entrance lodge. For a short distance the road winds 
through pleasant and truly English park scenery, interspersed with clumps of trees of 
various sizes and forms ; while herds of deer sweeping across the path, give life and 
animation to the scene. Adjacent to a large sheet of water stands the house, which forms 
three sides of a quadrangle, originally the cloisters of the Abbey of Combe. 

On the east side of these cloisters five highly 
enriched arches still remain of the later Roman 
character, the most northern being of the transition 
period. The openings towards the court (now 
glazed) are of later date, probably about the four- 
teenth century. After the Reformation, on the 
property falling into the hands of the first Lord 
Harrington, he built the Elizabethan portion of the 
mansion, preserving, no doubt, the cloisters as a 
means of communication with the several apart- 
ments ; and, on the whole, with the manors of 
Combe, Smite, and Binley, being transferred by 
sale from his daughter and heiress, Lucy Countess 
of Bedford to Dame Elizabeth Craven, widow of 

Sir John Craven (which transfer bears date 24th October, 1622); it fell in due time 
into the hands of the famous William Earl Craven, her son, who made considerable 
additions to the building, his architect, it is said, being the no less famous Inigo Jones.* 

To attempt a formal description of the rooms would far exceed our purpose and limits ; 
we shall, therefore, content ourselves with pointing out a few of the more remarkable 
objects, commencing with the north parlour, a very handsome room, in which are the 

* Mr. Richardson makes the following observations on 
this controverted point : " Great portion of the present build- 
ing was raised by Lord Harrington ; of the ancient monastic 
pile a portion of the cloisters only remains ; these form a fine 
corridor, which ranges along the lower division of the build- 

ing. On the west side of the house is a large addition, said 
to be by Inigo Jones, but which is more probably the work 
of Captain William Winde, the pupil of Sir Balthazar 
Gerbier ; at least, it is ascribed to him by Horace Walpole 
(see his ' Anecdotes,' vol. iii. p. 169, Dallaway's edition)." 


fire-dogs, forming the subject of the annexed vignette. This room contains very fine whole- 
length portraits of the King and Queen of Bohemia, 
by C. Honthorst ; and of Charles I. and the Princes 
Maurice and Rupert, by Vandyck. There is also a very 
i fine bust of the present earl, by Behnes. Adjoining this 
room is the grand staircase, the ceiling of which is en- 
riched by an oval garland of fruit and flowers, modelled 
with the most exquisite taste and delicacy of execution. 
Around the walls of the landing are suspended whole- 
lengths of William the first Earl Craven, Charles II., James I. and II., and others. 
From thence we enter the Elizabethan room, the subject of our illustration. It is said 
to have been fitted up for the reception of Queen Elizabeth, and is well worthy of such 
repute. The fire-place, of most elaborate design and execution, contains on each side the 
initials E. R. The ceiling is richly ornamented, and on the walls are hung five very 
fine landscapes, by J. Lootens, with other pictures of considerable merit. In the window 
is the bust of the Princess Elizabeth, with the following inscription : 

" JElis Reg. 


Fil Jac Rex Mag Brit 

And also another bust, on the base of which is carved, 

" La Sereniss 
Princ Sophia 
Pal. Fig : Di : Fred. 
Re Di Boenia *?* 3 . 

A D 

M S 


From thence, passing a small ante-room, which contains a most curious picture of the 
"Decollation of John the Baptist," 
said to be by Albert Durer, the 
long gallery is entered one of 
those apartments so judiciously 
attached to the houses of the 
wealthy of this period, for the pur- 
poses of recreation and exercise 
during inclement weather. It is 
about one hundred feet in length 
and sixteen in width, lighted from 
the court-yard side, and filled with 
portraits of the early part of the 
sixteenth century. M. Mireveldt and G. Honthorst are the principal contributors, and 


in the historical series here presented to view are subjects for much reflection. 
Queen of Bohemia, whose destiny seems so closely in- 
terwoven with the house of Craven, appears more than 
once.* The gallant and chivalrous William Earl 
Craven the wise Chancellor Oxenstern Charles 
XII. of Sweden, grim, stern, and forbidding Arch- 
bishop Laud, all are here ; and last, not least, are 
the painters ; besides many others, whose names are 
registered in the pages of history. Connected with 
this apartment is the elegant porch which forms the 
subject of our vignette, and was, no doubt, a garden- 
approach to the principal apartments. " It is con- 
structed of very friable stone, the same apparently as 
that used in the principal buildings at Coventry. 
Some of its enrichments can no longer be made 

Descending to the opposite wing we find the 
dining-room, which is fitted up in panelled compartments of oak, and contains 


* The Princess Elizabeth was married to the Elector 
Palatine at the early age of sixteen. Her virtues, talents, 
and sweetness of temper, combined with exceeding gaiety of 
disposition, together with her personal charms, made her 
almost an object of idolatry with the cavaliers of her age. 
She was usually styled " the queen of hearts ;" and it was 
to her that Sir Henry Wotton addressed the elegant lines 

" You meaner beauties of the night, 

That weaklie satisfie our eies, 
More by your number than your lighte, 

Like common people of the skies, 
What are you when the moon doth rise ? " 

Immediately after her marriage to the Elector, they pro- 
ceeded to their palace at Heidelberg, which became the focus 
of the chivalry of the period. 

This scene of their enjoyment and happiness they quitted 
when the Elector became king of Bohemia, and thenceforward 
evil destiny pursued their steps. The deposed sovereign died 
of a broken heart, at the early age of thirty-six ; and after 
his death the queen remained at the Hague, living in privacy 
and poverty, but exerting the energies of her fine mind to 
educate her children, of whom she had several. The manage- 
ment of her affairs she confided entirely to her gallant de- 
fender the Earl of Craven, who had entered the military 
service of the states to be near her, and to whom she is un- 
derstood to have been privately married. On the Restoration, 
she was invited by her nephew, Charles II., to pass the re- 

mainder of her life in England, a proposal which she gladly 
accepted. She arrived in London on the 17th of May, 1661, 
with Lord Craven, and took up her residence at his house 
in Drury Lane, where she remained till the following Fe- 
bruary, on the 8th of which month she removed to Leicester 
House, and died there on the 1 3th, only five days after she 
had entered it. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, in a 
vault made for the interment of her brother Henry, prince 
of Wales. 

That her ambition principally induced the downfall of 
her husband, there is little doubt. On this subject we borrow 
an eloquent passage from Mrs. Jamieson : " One of the most 
interesting monuments of Heidelberg, at least to an English 
traveller, is the elegant triumphal arch raised by the Palatine 
Frederick V., in honour of his bride this very Elizabeth 
Stuart. I well remember with what self-complacency and 
enthusiasm our chief walked about in a heavy rain, examining, 
dwelling upon every trace of this celebrated and unhappy 
woman. She had been educated at his country seat; and 
one of the avenues of his magnificent park yet bears her 
name. On her fell a double portion of the miseries of her 
fated family. She had the beauty and the wit, the gay spirits 
the elegant tastes, the kindly disposition of her grandmother, 
Mary of Scotland; her very virtues as a wife and woman, 
not less than her pride and feminine prejudices, ruined her- 
self, her husband, and her people. When Frederick hesitated 
to accept the crown of Bohemia, his spirited wife exclaimed, 
' Let me rather eat dry bread at a king's table than feast at 
the board of an elector.' 


beautiful carving in the sideboard, &c. Fine portraits of the Craven family, the Duke of 
Richmond, and Prince Henry (son of James I.), adorn the apartment, which also contains 
two transcendent pictures by Rembrandt. Adjacent to this room is a very handsome 

apartment, ornamented by columns, and containing 
two pictures by Canaletti, which may be classed 
with the finest examples of that master. 

There are numerous other rooms particularly 
rich in old carved fire-places, bedsteads (of which 
we give a specimen), tapestry, antique furniture, 
and all things which correct taste and refined 
judgment could accumulate. 

We may recur to the almost romantic interest 
which attaches itself to this house, from the chival- 
rous exertions of one of its early possessors in behalf 
of the illustrious but unfortunate princess, who is 
frequently recalled to memory within its walls. At each step we are reminded of the fact ; 
and it is a melancholy, yet most pleasant reflection, in looking back through the vista of two 
centuries, to find the youthful and early devotion qf Earl Craven not merely a transient and 
evanescent impulse, but enduring to the end, and manifesting itself in studious care to 
protect and soothe that royal lady in the decline of her fortunes and the close of her life. 
Well did he establish the truth of his family motto, 





HE early history of the town of Warwick is involved in the 
mists of past ages, and carries us back to the period 
prior to the invasion of Britain by the Romans ; if 
Rous and other old historians of the county be correct, 
Avho declare it to have been a British town of con- 
siderable importance before that great event. Dugdale 
says, " as it hath been the chieftest town of these parts, 
and whereof the whole county, upon its division into 
shires, took its name, so may it justly glory in its 
situation beyond any other, standing upon a rocky 
ascent, from every side, and in a dry and fertile soil, 
having the benefit of rich and pleasant meadows on 

the south part, with the lofty groves and spacious thickets of the woodland on the 
north: wherefore, were there nothing else to argue its great antiquity, these 
commodities, which so surround it, might easily satisfy us, that the Britons made an 
early plantation here to participate of them." The reader will not be expected to 
place implicit reliance on the statements of Dugdale concerning its foundation by 
Cymbeline, by whom it was termed Caerleon, and its destruction by the Picts and 
Scots, " till Caractacus, the famous British Prince, rebuilt it, making a mansion-house 
therein for himself." After the defeat of Caractacus in A.D. 50, the Romans, in order 
to secure their conquests in Britain, erected several fortresses on the banks of the 
Severn and Avon, and Warwick is said to have been one of these, but this is not 
very clearly proved. During the Saxon period the town was included in the kingdom 
of Mercia, and fell under the dominion of Warremund, who rebuilt it and called it 
Warrewyke, after his own name. Warwick was subsequently destroyed by the Danes, 
and, according to Dugdale, " so rested until the renowned Lady Ethelfled, daughter 
to King Alfred, who had the whole Earldom of Mercia given her by her father to 
the noble Etheldred in marriage, repaired its ruins, and in the year of Christ DCCCCXV, 
made a strong fortification here, called the doungeon, for resistance of the enemy, upon 

a hill of earth artificially raised near the river side ;" and this forms the most ancient 


part of the present building. But the most important reparations of the castle were 
the work of the famous Guy, Earl of Warwick, although Dugdale tells us that the 
great tower at the north-east corner, called Guy's Tower, the walls whereof are ten 
feet thick, was built by Thomas, Earl of Warwick, about the 17th of Richard the 
Second, on whose banishment the custody of it was granted to John de Clinton, 
and in a short time after to Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent. In the reign of Henry the 
Third, the extraordinary strength of this building was alleged as a reason for particularly 
prohibiting the widowed Countess of Warwick from re-marrying with any other than 
a person approved by the King; but in the furious contests which occurred in the 
latter years of this reign, William Mauduit, the then Earl, neglecting to keep proper 
guard, the fortress was surprised, and all the building, except the towers, levelled 
with the ground, while himself and his Countess were carried prisoners to Kenilworth. 
The family of Beauchamp shortly succeeded to the Earldom, and by Thomas Beauchamp, 
in the reign of Edward the Third, the castle was repaired, strong gates were added, and 
the gateways fortified with embattled towers. Thomas de Beauchamp, his son and 
successor, passed a great portion of his time here, during his exile from Court ; he 
had, thus, leisure to repair and strengthen the castle ; and he it was who built the 
tower as stated above, on which he bestowed the name of Guy's Tower ; it is a fine 
relic of early castellated building, and is represented in our initial letter.* 

* The legend of Guy of Warwick was extremely popular 
in the middle ages ; and his encounter with the Danish cham- 
pion Colbrand, as well as his victory over the Dun Cow, was 
the favourite subject of the wandering minstrel. Dugdale has 
given the narrative of his battle with Colbrand, which he 
seems inclined to believe to be true in the main features, 
although " the monks may have sounded out his praises hyper- 
bolically." According to him, " in the 3 year of King Athel- 
stan, A.D. 826, the Danes having invaded England cruelly 
wasted the countrys where they marcht, so that there was scarce 
a Town or Castle that they had not burnt or destroyed almost 
as far as Winchester," where the King resided, and to whom 
they sent a message, requiring him to resign his crown to their 
generals, holding his power at their hands, and paying them 
yearly tribute for the privilege of ruling ; or, that the whole 
dispute for the kingdom be determined in a single combat, by 
two champions, for both sides. The King having chosen the 
latter alternative, enjoins a fast for three days, and in great 
anguish of heart that Guy, the famous warrior, is absent on a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land, prays Heaven for assistance. 
An Angel appears to the King as he lies on his bed, and directs 
him to arise early on the morrow, and take two bishops with him 
to the North gate of the city, and stay there " till the hour of 
Prime," until the poor people and pilgrims arrive, among whom 
he must choose a champion, and the choice must fall on him 
who goes barefooted, with a wreath of white roses on his head. 
The King goes, and meets the Pilgrim, accosts him, and asks 
his championship, which he hesitates to give, excusing himself 
on the ground of his weakness with much travel, and exhorts 

him to seek a fitter help. To this the King bitterly answers, 
" I had but one valiant knight, which was Earl of Warwick, 
called Guy, and he had a courageous servant, named Sir Heraud 
de Ardene ; would to God I had him here, for then should this 
duel be soon undertaken, and the war finished, and as he 
spake these words the tears fell from his eyes." The Pilgrim 
is moved, and ultimately consents, and after three weeks 
spent in praver and preparation, the battle begins. Colbrand 
" came so weightily harnessed that his horse could scarce 
carry him, and before him a cart loaded with Danish axes, 
great clubs with knobs of iron, squared bars of steel, lances, 
and iron hooks, to pull his adversary to him." The giant uses 
a bar of steel in the combat, which lasts the whole day Guy 
in the end proving victorious, and taking a farewell of the King 
to whom he declares himself, goes towards Warwick, and 
thence to a hermit in its neighbourhood, living with him till 
his death, and succeeding him in his cell until his own decease. 
The spot is still pointed out, and bears the name of Guy's Cliff. 
But this is not the only Giant story connected with the 
family. Their well-known crest or cognisance is said to come 
from one Morvidus, an Earl of Warwick in the days of King 
Arthur, " who being a man of great valour slew a mighty giant 
in a single duell, which gyant encountered him with a young 
tree pulled up by the root, the boughs being snag'd from it ; 
in token whereof, he and his successors, earles of Warwick, in 
the time of the Brittons, bore a ragged staff of silver in a sable 
shield for their cognisance." Such were the old fables with 
which our ancient family histories were obscured, or rendered 
romantic and wonderful to the subordinate classes. 


The daughter of this Richard Beauchamp married Richard Nevil, son and heir of the 
Earl of Salisbury, and in consequence of this marriage the Earldom of Warwick came 
into the possession of the Nevils. This powerful Earl played a conspicuous part in the 
wars of the Roses, and has been immortalised by Shakspeare, in his drama of King 
Henry VI. ; and, after a life of strange vicissitude and high excitement, he was killed in 
the battle of Barnet, A. D. 1471. His estates were forfeited, his widow was deprived of 
all power, " as if she had been naturally dead," and her vast inheritances were settled 
upon her daughters, Isabel and Anne, the latter of whom was married to George Duke of 
Clarence, created Earl of Warwick by his brother, King Edward the Fourth. He chiefly 
resided at Warwick Castle, and added much to the strength and beauty of its works. On 
the accession of Henry the Seventh, the jealousy of that monarch to his son Edward, the 
last of the male Plantagenets, induced him to compass his death, by holding out to him 
fair promises and a hope of liberty (for he had been imprisoned in the Tower on a 
groundless charge, to keep him 'secure), to confess a connection with Perkin Warbeck, 
after which confession he was beheaded on Tower-hill. From this time until the 1st of 
Edward the Sixth there Avas no Earl of Warwick ; until John Dudley having been 
advanced to the dignity of Viscount L'Isle, was so created through the favour of the 
Duke of Somerset, the powerful Protector ; and on the failure of that line, the title was 
revived by James the First, in the person of Robert Lord Rich, in whose posterity it 
continued till the year 1759, when it passed into the family of the Grevilles, who now 
hold the title of Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick, their seats being Warwick Castle 
and Brooke House, Dorset. 

The Castle occupies the summit of a steep hill, which greatly aided its artificial 

defences in "the olden time." The present approach is 

by a narrow passage, cut through the solid rock, and 

extending to the main entrance from the Porter's Lodge, 

the Lodge itself, however, being a place of attraction 

which few will leave unvisited, for here are collected the 

marvellous relics of the great Earl a rib of the dun cow, 

a tusk of the wild boar, with horse armour, a helmet, 

breast-plate, tilting-pole, and walking-staff, of such prodi- 
gious size and weight that they could have suited only a 

giant and his steed. Of the two famous Towers, that of Guy 

is to the right, while that of " Caesar " (here represented) 

is to the left : they are connected by a strong embattled 

wall, in the centre of which is the ponderous arched Gate- 
way, flanked by Towers, and succeeded by a second arched 

Gateway, with Towers and Battlements, " formerly defended by two portholes, one of 



which still remains; before the whole is now a disused Moat, with an arch thrown 
over it at the Gateway, where was once the drawbridge." * 

Passing the double Gateway, the court-yard is entered. Thus seen, " the castellated 
mansion " of the most famous of the feudal Barons has a tranquil and peaceful aspect ; 
fronting it is a green sward, and the " frowning keep " which conceals all its gloomier 
features behind a screen of ivy and evergreen shrubs. It is only when viewed from the 
river, when the battlements of the old Castle seem literally towering in air, that a notion 
is obtained of its prodigious strength. The slopes, however, are now clothed with gently- 
growing trees ; several unscathed cedars speak of long years of rest from strife ; the 
gardens are among the fairest and most fertile of the kingdom ; and in one of the 
conservatories of the rich Park, is deposited " the Vase," which may be said to have given 
a second immortality to the name of Warwick. 

The interior of Warwick Castle demands but a brief notice. " The Hall " is a 
restoration; and the apartments, generally, have been subjected to the deleterious 
influence of the fashionable upholsterer. The rooms contain, however, many rich 
treasures of art ; the collection of pictures, although of limited extent, is of rare value, 
comprising, perhaps, some of the best examples to be found in England of Vandyck and 
Rubens ; and there is a fine assemblage of costly garderobes, cabinets, encoigneurs, tables 

of Buhl and Marquetrie, vases, and bronzes, 
with many veritable antiques. An object of 
much interest is pictured in the appended 
wood-cut. It is " the Warder's Horn." Its 
history is told by the following inscription : 

FLORUIT 1598. 

It measures two feet two inches across, and three inches and three-quarters diameter 
at the mouth. 

In all respects Warwick Castle holds rank among the most remarkable of our 
existing remains of the dwellings of the Feudal Barons. Its history is deeply 
interesting; and from the few changes it has undergone, we require little aid from 
fancy to read there a full and perfect record of the leading incidents of by-gone ages. 

* From the top of Guy's Tower, ascended by 133 steps, 
the view is most fine and most extensive. Far stretching in 
the distance are seen the tall spires of the Churches at 
Coventry ; nearer is the ruined Castle of Kenilworth ; still 
nearer, are Guy's Cliff and Blacklow Hill, famous in legend 
and story ; Leamington appears lying at our feet ; while 

" Stratford-on-the-Avon " seems almost " within arms-reach ;" 
far off are the hills of Shropshire ; on all sides are fertile 
plains, of seemingly illimitable extent, with here and there 
dark woods and forests ; the Panorama is inconceivably beau- 
tiful and grand. 




rv 1 



ROXHALL ABBEY. Of Wroxhall there is no particular mention in the 
Conqueror's survey a circumstance for which Dugdale accounts by 
jip " the barrennesse of the soil," which now vies in fertility and beauty 
with the choicest districts of England. " A monastery of nuns " was 

founded here so early as " King Stephen's time."* The founder endowed 
it with " totam terram loci de Wrocheshale with large proportions of 
lands and woods thereabouts : together with the church of Hatton and whatsoever 
belonged thereto, and so much of his royalty in Hatton as lay betwixt the two little 
brooks there." It also received large benefactions from other parties, and sundry 
immunities and privileges. At the dissolution its value extended to 72/. 12*. 6d- 
"above all reprises;" the then prioress received a pension of Jl. 10s. per annum; and the 
site thereof, " with church, belfrey, and all the lands thereunto belonging," were given to 
Robert Burgoyn and John Scudamore, and their heirs. 

* The following legend is given by Dugdale, as extracted 
from a MS. penned about the time of Edward IVth: 
" Hugh the son of one Richard, holding the lordship of 
Hatton and likewise this place of Wroxhall, of Henry earl 
of Warwick, was a man of great stature; which Hugh going 
to warfare in the Holy Land was taken prisoner, and kept 
in great hardship for 7 years: at length he addressed his 
prayers to St. Leonard, the patron of his church, who 
appeared to him in a dream, in the habit of a black monk, 
and bade him arise and go home and found at his Church a 
house of nuns of St. Benet's order. He treated it as a 
dream, but on its repetition joyfully made a vow to God and 
S. Leonard that he would perform his commands : which 
vow was no sooner made than he was miraculously carried 
thence with his fetters, and set in Wroxall woods, not far 

from his own house, yet knew not where he was, until a 
shepherd of his own accidentally found him, and though much 
affrighted (in respect of his being overgrown with hair), 
after some communication discovered all to him. His lady 
and children being apprised of the circumstance, came forth- 
with to him, but believed not that he was her husband 
till he shewed her a piece of a ring that had been broken 
between them. Having given thanks to God, our Lady, 
and S. Leonard, and praying for some divine revelation as 
to the site for his monastery, he was specially directed by 
certain stones pitched into the ground in the very place 
where the altar was afterwards set. On its completion two 
of his daughters were made nuns therein, one of the nuns 
of Wilton being fetched to direct them in their rule of 
S. Benedict." 


The present structure is on the original site, the southern and eastern sides having been 
adapted as offices, and the western front was rebuilt by Robert Burgoyn, and has been sub- 
jected to alterations of a later date, as will be seen in our view. The mansion was purchased 
from the Burgoyn family, in 1713, by the famous Sir Christopher Wren. It is, however, 
doubtful whether he resided here, as he was at that period actively employed in his official 
capacity. His son, Christopher Wren, died in 17^7- He was buried here, and most probably 
on this spot he compiled with so much care and diligence the papers of the " Parentalia," 
afterwards published under this title in 1750 by his son Stephen. 

The mansion, as will be perceived, has a picturesque appearance, and some of the old 
wainscotting remains in the principal rooms, with some good carving round the chimney- 
pieces. The Chapel seems to have been formed from part 
of the cloisters : it is on the north side of the house, and 
contains some monuments of the Wren family and some 
good stained glass. It is at present in the possession of 
Mrs. Wren, a lady who derives her position as well as her 
property from marriage with the latest male descendant of 
the great architect. She resolutely closes the doors, not 
only of the mansion but of the adjacent chapel, against the 
entrance of all applicants for admission to examine either ; 
and her discourtesy is consequently a proverb in the 
neighbourhood. We may add to this imperfect description 
an expression of satisfaction at the probable reversion 
of the estate into the hands of Chandos Wren Hoskyns, 
Esq., a gentleman whose acquirements are such as to 
render him a worthy successor of the great man whose 
name has imparted interest to this mansion. 




ROUGHAM HALL the seat of Henry, Lord Brougham and Vaux is 
situated about a mile south of Penrith, on the high-road from 
Lancaster to Carlisle. It is a structure of mixed character 
half castle and half mansion of which there are many examples 
in the northern districts of the Kingdom. Its origin dates from u 
remote period ; and it has, no doubt, largely participated in the 

perils that arose from close proximity to " the Border/' The remains of a castle still more 
ancient than the greater part of the building, and, apparently, of far greater strength, 
stand at a short distance from the Hall, in the midst of "pleasant scenery". fruitful 
fields and a gentle and generous river, the river Eamont. The earliest mention we find 
of Brougham occurs in the " Itinerary" of Antoninus, and in the " Notitiae," from which 
we gather that it was a Roman station of considerable importance. The remains of the 
camp may still be traced near the present house, and a field close by appears to have 
been the burial-place (as usual, without the walls), many tombs and altars having been, 
from time to time, discovered there. 

" Although," according to Camden, " time hath consumed its buildings and its 
splendour, the name remains almost entire, for at this day we call it Brougham." And 
this so clearly resembles the Roman Brovocum or Brocovum (for it is spelt both ways) 
that the etymology may be considered settled, although for many centuries both the place 
and the family were called Burgham a name considered by Horsley (in his " Roman 
Antiquities of Britain") as of Saxon derivation, compounded of Burgh, castle, and Horn, 
town. Stukeley in his " Itinerary," (1725) says, " The trace of the Roman city is very 
easily discovered, where the ditch went between the Roman road and the river. I saw 
many fragments of altars and inscriptions at the Hall near the bridge, all exposed in the 
court-yard to weather and injuries of every sort." 

In the earliest records belonging to the family, or to be found in the Tower of London, 
the place is spelt Broham and Bruham ; and this, singularly enough, while it differs from 


the spelling of the Roman word (which, as Camden says, was in his time changed into 
Brougham), yet in sound it is absolutely identical with the pronunciation, which has 
probably always been, and certainly is at the present day, given to the name. We are 
enabled from original documents preserved in the Charter-room at Brougham, in the 
Tower, State-paper Office, Rolls Chapel, and Chapter-house, and from other authentic 
sources, to trace with accuracy the descent of Brougham in a family of the same name, 
who have been settled there from times long antecedent to the Norman conquest. An 
ancient pedigree preserved in a copy of Cranmer's great Bible (1540), now at Brougham, 
states Walter de Broham to have held Brougham in the time of Edward the Confessor ; he 
was succeeded by Wilfred ; and he by Udard, who was appointed keeper of Appleby Castle 
on the degradation of the previous governor, in consequence of his participation in the death 
of Thomas a Beckett. This border-fortress was held by Udard until 1175, in which year 
he was defeated and the castle taken by William, king of Scotland. Soon after this we find 
him taking part against Henry II. for which he was fined eighty marks, " because he was 
with the king's enemies." Udard was succeeded by Gilbert, who, in the year 1200, " made 
fine with the king" that he might not go with him to Normandy. This Gilbert, to get rid 
of the burden of Drengage, gave up to King John no less than one half of the town of 
Brougham, together with the mill, the advowson of the church of Brougham, a great part 
of the forest of Whinfell, and the tower which formed the original building of Brougham 
Castle. The name was at this period changed from Broham to Burgham. From Gilbert, 
after Henry and Thomas, we come to Daniel, who commanded the king's forces against 
Roger Mortimer in Kent. In 1378, Sir John Burgham was Lord of Brougham, and 
settled the boundary of the Lordship with Sir Roger Clifford ; the record of which, after 
noting the particulars of the agreement, thus ends : " And so thys ambulacyon was veiwyd 
and merkett in the secund yeare of King Richard the Secund, by the assentt and consentt 
of Sr. Rogere Clifforth, knight, and Sr John Burgham, in thayre time." In 1383, Sir John 
Burgham was member for Cumberland. He was succeeded by his son John, who repre- 
sented Carlisle. His son, Thomas, was one of the king's judges in 1433, as appears by 
a record of assize taken at Penrith in the 12th Henry VII. John, the son of the above 
Thomas, was member for Cumberland, and was succeeded in the fourth generation by 
Thomas, who in 1553 married Jane, heiress of John Vaux of Cattulun and Tryermagne. 
The next possessor of the name was Henry, who signalised himself in the family records 
by alienating part of the ancient estate ; which, however, was repurchased in 1726 by John 
Brougham, the then representative of the family. 

Henry was succeeded by his son Thomas, whose name we now find changed from 
Burgham into Browgham, according to the spelling of the place in the deed of 1567 ; he 
died in 1607, and was buried in the chancel at Brugham : his widow, Agnes, having 
Brugham assigned to her for her life, by a deed dated 29th March, 1608. The heir-male of 
Thomas was Henry Browgham, of Scales Hall in Cumberland, who married a Wharton. 



His son, Thomas, married a Fleming; and in the deeds of that time his name is spelt 
Browham. His son, Henry, married the daughter of Lamplugh of Lamplugh, ultimately 
heir-general of that ancient family (and whose descendant, Peter Lamplugh Brougham, 
enjoyed their estates). From him descended John Brougham, of Brougham in Westmorland, 
and Scales Hall in Cumberland, who, dying without issue, was succeeded hy his nephew, 
Henry Richmond Brougham, owner also of Highhead Castle, derived from his mother, the 
heiress of the Richmonds, and dying in 171-9 was succeeded by Henry Brougham, the 
grandfather of Henry, Lord Brougham and Vaux, the present owner of Brougham, 
Scales Hall, and Highhead Castle ; a nobleman to whose genius the world owes much, 
and by whose active industry, science and literature have beers so extensively served, and 
so largely promoted, for nearly half a century. 

The castle-mansion is irregularly built, and with the court-yards and outer offices 
covers a vast extent of ground. The garden-court comprises on two of its sides nearly 
the whole of the buildings occupied by the family. At the lower end of this court is 
a massive arched entrance- 
gateway, which, together 
with the surrounding build- 
ings, is very old and pictur- 
esque, clothed with a garb 
of most luxuriant ivy : of 
this we append an en- 

In our lithotint print is 
shewn the western side of 
the Hall, considered to be 
the most ancient part of 
the structure. It is sin- 
gularly solid in construc- 
tion, the works being seve- 
ral yards in thickness. The 
large tower in the per- 
spective contains the apartment formerly the Armoury. The terrace commands an extensive 
view of scenes rich in historic interest, and of great natural beauty ; comprising in the 
distance the whole of the mountains of the Lake district, which rear their airy summits, 
chain upon chain, peak above peak, in almost countless numbers. Nearer, the eye ranges 
over thick woods, chequered here and there with grey rocks and quiet holms ; while nearer, 
unseen, but plainly heard, the Lowther brawls over its rocky bed and through the wide 
arches of Lowther Bridge a famous and most picturesque structure. Higher up the 
river, the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway passes over an immense viaduct, of which the 



three or four most central arches are distinctly visible from the Hall. Nothing can 
exceed the beauty of this scene on a clear sunny afternoon, when the dull red bridge is 
in shade ; the light touched clearly but delicately along the parapet and down the inner 
sides of the shafted piers : the whole framed, as it were, in ponderous masses of richly 
coloured foliage, subdued and harmonised by ever-recurring passages of most delicious shade. 
The interior contains many apartments of high interest : several of them having been 
renovated in the best possible taste, and in perfect harmony with the edifice. Our space 

will not permit us to describe 
them in detail. The Great 
Hall (of which we append 
an engraving) is a double 
cube forty feet by twenty, and 
twenty high ; the roof sup- 
ported by arches, with open 
spandrels, made of walnut- 
wood. The ceiling has 
been lately restored, having 
(at least the greater part of 
it) fallen to pieces through 
age and decay. The fire- 
place also has been restored. 
The windows (six in num- 
ber) are filled with very 

fine stained glass, chiefly of the end of the 15th and beginning of the 1 6th century ; the 
colours arc singularly rich : it appears to be of German manufacture, and closely resembles 
the old glass at Nuremberg. There is a good deal of curious armour here ; especially 
a very old and very perfect suit of Edward IV. or Richard III.'s time. The Armoury 
was a room about sixteen feet square at the top of the highest tower, with a fine oak 
roof, but is now used as a bed-room. All its contents were recently moved into the Hall, 
where, although seen to greater advantage, they have no longer the picturesque effect 
they must have had in their original situation. 

In the Hall is a very old iron chest, with a lock in the lid which shoots twelve bolts 
by one key, that turns in the centre of the lid. This was probably used in ancient 
times to keep the vessels belonging to the chapel. The most curious relic in the Hall 
is an ivory horn (introduced as the initial letter), of very early workmanship, and used 
(as is believed) in the service of Cornage an ancient border service, by which certain 
of the lands of Brougham are held. In former times this service consisted in blowing 
a horn from the top of the high tower, to give notice of the approach of an enemy 
(most usually the Scotch), so that the neighbouring barons might be prepared to resist 


the threatened attack ; or the nearest beacon (which is on the top of Penrith Fell, and 
still in existence) might be lighted up to alarm the country. This service in later times 
was changed into a Corn rent, and hence it has been erroneously supposed that it was 
called Cornage : the original service, however, was that of blowing the horn. From its 
workmanship and ornaments this horn is evidently of Saxon times, and was probably used 
before the introduction of the cornage tenure as a warder's horn. Over the chimney- 
piece in the old drawing-room are the arms of Edward VI. This room and many others 
in the house are rich in tapestry and old stamped leather. 

" At the mansion of Browham 
stands a chapel of very ancient erection. 
In the year 1377, ' Johannes de 
Burgham' is said to have had ' Ca- 
pellam apud Browham, Sancto Wilfrido 
sacrum, ab antiquis temporibus funda- 
tam,' and that a Chaplain attended 
divine offices at it. Through process of 
time it becoming ruinous and neglected, 
it was lately repaird and beautify'd by 
the piety of Anne, Countess of Pem- 
broke, A.D. 1659."* In this chapel there 
was formerly a holy well, dedicated to 
St. Wilfred, which rose through the 
ancient font by a hole bored through 

the shaft (in which also was the waste-pipe) into the bowl. The hill near the chapel was 
cut through about fifty years ago, for the purpose of lowering the road, and from that 
time the spring which supplied the well was cut off, so that the water now only rises 
to the height of the chapel-floor : the loss of this singular remnant of antiquity is much 
to be lamented. There still remains the shrine, or a considerable portion of it, now 
fixed at the west end of the chapel, noticed by Leland in his " Itinerary," and to 
which he says there was a great pilgrimage. The shrine at the east end consists ot 
three compartments, of very remarkable carving, said to be by Albert Durer, but ap- 
parently, from the architecture of the canopy work, of an earlier date. It is said to 
have come from the church of St. Cunegonde at Cologne. The windows at the east 
end are early Anglo-Norman, and are filled with the earliest stained glass known in 
England. Two appear to have been repaired, and the broken parts replaced with glass 
of a more modern date. At one side of the altar, in the north wall, is the ancient 
" ambrie," or small cupboard cut in the solid wall, in which were kept the vessels ; some 

* Extract from a. MSS. written about 1690, by Dr. Mark- 

Westmorland," and containing much curious information 
house, a prebendary of Carlisle, upon the " Deanery of upon ecclesiastical matters in that county. 



of these are still preserved, and are of great curiosity the pix, now very rarely to be met 
with ; the remonstrance, a small oblong box, either used as a reliquary, or, more probably, 
to contain the cruet or phial of sacred oil. These are gilt and finely enamelled, and are 
in a state of good preservation. The chalice and paten (silver gilt) are of great antiquity, 
and are also well preserved. The door of the ambrie is of black oak, curiously carved ; 
on the back is fixed a very singular gilt and enamelled crucifixion, with a very remarkable 
representation of a glory above the head of our Saviour : this cross is of the very earliest 
age, probably of the sixth or eighth century. The sedilia, of black oak, still stands upon 
the raised part of the floor, on the south side of the altar ; and the old drain, or piscina, 
is still to be seen. The oak carving, especially some of the stall ends, and the screen, 
are very fine, but have been extensively repaired. Some of the oak and stained glass, 
which appear formerly to have belonged to the chapel, are now in the great dining-hall ; 
but what is left, still shews a richness and abundance of carving rarely to be met with 
in so small a space. Service is performed here whenever the family are resident, and 
generally by the Rector, after his duty at the parish church is over. 

The situation of the parish church is remarkable. It is placed on the borders of a 
meadow, close to the river Eamont, at a point where there is a ford, in a direct line from 
the Roman way to Carlisle, and nearer than by Brovoniacum. It is above two miles from 
the nearest village, called Woodside, and still further from the place where the town of 
Brougham formerly stood : there is no trace of any habitations having ever existed near it. 

Stukeley, who visited this part of Westmorland about 1724, and wrote his account of it 
in 1725, after describing the British circus or camp on the banks of the Lovvther, called 
King Arthur's Round Table, directly opposite to Brougham, says, " This is the most 
delightful place that can be imagined for recreation ; the rapid river Louther runs all 
along the side of it : the Eamont joins it a little way off in view. Beyond is a charming 
view of a vast wood, and of Brougham ; beyond that the ancient Roman city, and the 
Roman road going along under the high hill, whereon is the beacon." Vol. II. p. 43. 

After describing various British remains which abound in this neighbourhood, he pro- 
ceeds : " In the pasture on the eastern bank of the Louther, in the way to Clifton, are 
several cairns, or carrachs as the Scotch call them, made of dry stones heaped together ; 
also many other monuments of stones, 3, 4, 5, set upright together. They are generally 
by the country-people said to be done by Michael Scott a noted conjuror in their opinion, 
who was a monk of Holme Abbey, in Cumberland. They have a notion, too, that one 
Turquin, a giant, lived at Brougham, and that Sir Lancelot du Lake lived at Mayborough 
and slew him." P. 45. Stukeley accompanies his description by a view of Brougham, as 
seen rising from the midst of fine old trees (most of which are now cut down), with 
King Arthur's Round Table in the foreground. 



~-IZERGH HALL, with its venerable towers, presents to the traveller 
journeying from Lancaster to Kendal an appearance peculiarly 
impressive. After passing Levens Hall, famous for its antique 
gardens and other vestiges of the olden time, two miles bring us to 
Sizergh, which a sudden turn presents to view, standing about 
half a mile from the main road, on a fine natural terrace of 
considerable elevation above the general level of the surrounding 
country. Fine time-honoured trees are thickly spread around ; among them are some 
noble elms, whose stateliness is, however, rapidly giving way before the inroads of age. 
The park is small, and not particularly well ordered ; it has also the appearance of 
being much diminished in size, the main turnpike-road having, in all probability, been 
cut through it, as in the case of Levens, where the house is on one side of the road and the 
park on the other. 

The palmy state of this place belongs to other days ; nevertheless much is left to shew 
what it has been, with the added interest of increasing years and antiquity to throw its halo 
of mystery around the scene. The hall front faces the east : the lithotint view will shew that 
it is singularly irregular and picturesque in its general outline, the whole being a collection 
of parts belonging to various eras ; exhibiting here and there incongruities of style, 
particularly in the ugly modern windows, which, about eighty years ago, were introduced to 
supplant those that were mullioned. These abominations, we were informed, are shortly to 
be removed, and their places supplied by windows in keeping with the structure. By far the 
oldest parts of the building are the two southern towers, of the erection of which, it is said, no 
record remains ; these towers are embattled, and are of amazing strength, the walls and the 
floors that divide the several stories being of great thickness and solidity, displaying a lavish 
use of materials in their construction : the beams are particularly remarkable in this respect. 


The smaller tower rises considerably above the other : in the upper part there is a guard- 
chamber, capable of containing a dozen men a necessary precaution in feudal times to 
prevent sudden attacks. Behind, is a large square courtyard, one hundred and eighty feet 
from side to side, and enclosed on three sides by the back buildings of the mansion. These 
large yards were a necessary part of the old Border strongholds ; they were generally 
large, as in this case, fortified by strong walls, and were used to protect the cattle, which 
were regularly secured therein at night, and during the frequent inroads of the turbulent 
and ever-watchful enemy, whose visits were not by any means either few or far between. In 
front a double flight of steps leads from the garden-terrace to a second terrace, leading direct 
into the Hall, a large room fifty feet in length, hung with rich tapestry and some good family 
pictures, many of the latter being of considerable artistic merit, as well as of historical 
interest. Among these the most "noticeable" are Sir Robert Strickland, a zealous 
adherent of the Royalist party in the civil wars of the time of Charles I. ; Sir Thomas 
Strickland, knight-banneret, and one of the privy council to James II. ; and of his third son, 
Roger Strickland ; Thomas Strickland, bishop of Namur, and ambassador to England from 
the Emperor Charles VI., by Rigaut. There is also a good portrait, of Mary Queen of 
Scots, said to be by More. The drawing-room contains portraits of James II. and his 

queen, and one of Charles II., a royal gift 
from James himself to the family. 

In the Great Tower are two rooms of 
much beauty and importance ; one is the 
drawing-room, the other is called the 
Queen's Chamber. Both these rooms 
are profusely decorated with rich carving, 
particularly in the chimneypieces. Of 
that in the drawing-room we procured a 
sketch. It is exceedingly rich and quaint, 
the centre compartment being occupied 
by a well-executed carving of the arms of 
the Stricklands. The fireplace is, as the 
reader will perceive, of recent date, and 
quite out of harmony with the more 
ancient part above. There is scarcely a 
room of any importance in the Hall 
that is not decorated with a rich chimney- 
piece and other carvings, all of great 
merit, and some of them of rare beauty and originality. These carvings are of the time 
of Elizabeth, in whose reign Walter Strickland, Esq., the then owner, refitted the greater 


part of the rooms. They are all exceedingly interesting. The Inlaid Chamber a 
bedroom in the great tower is, perhaps, the most curious of all; it is panelled with rich 
dark oak, inlaid with holly in curious arabesque devices. The bed is of the olden time, 
exceedingly massive, and magnificently furnished, the pillars being quaintly carved and very 
elaborate, supporting a canopy covered with rich draperies. There is not much old movable 
furniture, but some chairs attracted our attention ; on the back of one was carved the date 
1571. In one angle of the tower we were shewn a deep dark hole, constructed in the 
wall, with which tradition has connected some strange stories of secret violence committed in 
times when might was right ; of which, however, there is no more direct evidence than 
rumour and the suspicious look of the place. No ancient Baronial Hall could be complete 
without its ample kitchen, and accordingly we find Sizergh in this respect well supplied. 
The important adjunct to hospitality is of large dimensions, with an enormous fireplace, 
in which, no doubt, was once placed an old-fashioned and most capacious cooking apparatus : 
all this has given way to the modern range, which had a look so undeniably recent 
and patent as to preclude all particular examination from us. The kitchen is low, and 
approached from the corridor by a broad flight of stairs. 

Sizergh Hall has been for many centuries the property and place of residence of the 
Strickland family. At what time they first came here is not exactly known; they were 
originally from Great Strickland, in the parish of Morcland. "The son and heir of Walter 
de Stirkland was a hostage, in 1215, for the good behaviour of Roger Fitz-Rcinford." The 
erection of the great tower is attributed to Sir Walter de Stirkland, in the reign of 
Edward III., during which he procured from the king a license "to enclose his Wood 
and Demesne Lands on this estate, and to make a Park here." This supposition is 
supported by the sculptured shield of arms on the north side of the tower, " placed 
corner-wise, D'Aincourt quartering Strickland : three escallops, the crest a full-topped 
holly-bush on a close helmet."* Sir Walter was thrice returned to Parliament, an honour 
which several of his descendants also enjoyed. This was in the time of Edward III., 
when the name was spelt Sirezergh. The family took part in the Border Wars ; and it 
is said that in the time of Henry VI. they mustered "bowmen, horsyd and harnessed, 
Ixix ; bylmen, horsyd and harnessed, Ixxiiii ; bowmen, without hors harnesse, Ixxi ; bylmen, 
without hors harnesse, Ixxvi ; totalis numerus, cclxxxx." The Sir Thomas Strickland, 
whose portrait is mentioned above, went into France with the king, where he died, and 
was buried in the church of the English nuns at "Roan" in Normandy. "His third 
son, Roger Strickland, was page to the Prince of Conde, when he went from France to 

* " Sir William Stirkland in the reign of King John or 
Henry III. married Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of 
Ealph D'Aincourt and his wife Helen." 

" This piece of sculpture is one of the earliest instances 
of the quartering of arms, and is a curious example of the 

preference given to the heiress with whom the family had 
become allied, the arms of D'Aincourt being placed first a 
circumstance which often occurred at that early period of 
heraldic art. The quartered coat was not in use before the 
time of Edward III." 


be elected king of Poland." The fourth son was the already mentioned Bishop of Naraur. 
In Kendal church, "Strickland's Aisle" contains tombs of members of this family; "one 
of them is remarkable for the figure of Walter Strickland, a fat lad in a loose gown, with 
a most fulsome epitaph, dated in 1656." 

There is a tradition that Sizergh was once the property of the Crown ; and this 
supposition seems in some degree supported by the fact of the royal arms being placed 
among the decorations of one of the chambers, and placed there it is said by Catharine 
Parr : but for this there is no sufficient authority. 

For some years Sizergh has been the residence of D. Crewdson, Esq., in whom the old 
Hall has had a worthy and careful keeper, shewing its various matters of interest with a 
courtesy and kindness not too common among custodians of English antiquities. There is a 
moat in front of the house. This place was visited by the poet Gray when on his tour 
of the Lakes, in 1769, and its fine situation and antique appearance seem to have had 
a powerful impression on his mind proved by his letters to Dr. Wharton. From the 
Hall two avenues diverge to the highway, one towards Kendal, and the other southward, 
in the direction of Levens, Milnthorpe, and Lancaster. The gardens are on the southern 
end of the terrace, and contain, in addition to the usual modern flowering plants, some 
fine old trees, clipt into the fantastic forms of other times, and also an old summer-house, 
fast falling to decay. Altogether the old place is a deeply interesting relic of times now 
happily gone by. The feudal tower the varied and somewhat rude magnificence of 
the time of Elizabeth and James the spoliating barbarism of the eighteenth century all 
mingle here in curious contrast ; carrying the mind rapidly through a long series of years, 
and exhibiting, as if in mockery, memorials of men, whose works remain, but whose 
hands many of them, at least had mingled with the dust before the arrival of periods 
of which even the antiquary speaks as " the past." 





HARLTON HOUSE, the seat of the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, stands in the 
centre of a spacious park, a short distance from the ancient town of 
Malmesbury. The manor in "old times" belonged to the abbey of Malmes- 
bury, and subsequently passed to the family of Knevit. Thomas Howard, 
the first Earl of Suffolk,* having married Catherine, eldest daughter of 
Sir Thomas Knevit, the estates became the property of that noble house ; and the Earl, 
soon after entering into possession, commenced building the mansion we here engrave. It 
is considered an excellent example of the style of architecture of the time of James I. ; the 
house was, however, enlarged and modernised by Henry Earl of Suffolk and Berks, who was 
Secretary of State for the Northern Department, in the reign of George III. The principal 
front is ancient, with the exception of the attic over the centre portion between the two towers. 
A plan of the building preserved by the family shews the colonnade quite open, and forming 
one side of a large quadrangular court, sixty-five feet square, in the centre of the building : 
at the end of this court was the porch leading into the entrance-hall, which appears to have 
been in the style of Inigo Jones (the reputed architect of the building). This court-yard 
is now enclosed, and is formed into a saloon, which still remains unfinished, the works before 
their completion having been suddenly interrupted, probably by the death of the Earl in 
March 1799- 

The only portion of the interior retaining its original character is the gallery ; it runs 
through the whole front of the building immediately over the colonnade : the ceiling, which 
is ancient, is an extraordinary specimen of elaborate decoration ; it is 1 15 feet in length, and 
between the edges of the cornice, 17 feet in width. An old fire-place, with the arms of the 

* " The family is a branch of the Howards, Dukes of 
Norfolk : the first Earl was only son of the fourth Duke of 
Norfolk by his second marriage, and was a distinguished 
naval commander temp. Elizabeth. In 1605 this peer was 

employed in the search about the houses of Parliament, which 
terminated in the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot; in 1613 
he was Lord High Treasurer of England. His second son 
was the first Earl of Berkshire." DODD'S Peerage. 


first Earl 
It is said 

of Suffolk, brought from the Charter House, London, has been placed here. A 
of superb full-length portraits of this illustrious family adorn this fine apartment, 
that the ceiling of this gallery once saved the building from destruction : previous 
to the alterations, the Earl, not liking the situation of the 
house, thought of having it pulled down, and rebuilt in another 
part of the park ; the impossibility, however, of removing the 
ceiling determined the rejection of the idea. The additions 
externally (with the exception of one front) are closely copied 
from the older portions of the structure. The house abounds 
in furniture of antique character, in harmony with the cha- 
racter of the interesting building. One of these examples, 
consisting of a clock and cabinet, we here engrave. 

The architect under whose directions the repairs and 
additions were made, is well known among the profession as 
an "Architectural Plagiarist," one who was accustomed to 
affix his name to the designs of other men. This person, 
thinking probably that the architecture of James I. would 
never be studied, put up the following inscription at Charlton ; 
it is inscribed on an iron plate inserted in the wall above the 
roof of the saloon : 

" This edifice was rendered such as it is under the skilful direction of Matthew Brettingham, Architect, 
and the careful superintendence of James Darley, Clerk of the Works. 

(Thomas Carter, Steward.) 

Began A.D. 1772, finished A.D. 1776, by Henry, Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, 
the principal Secretary of State to the best of Princes." 

The mansion, taken altogether, is of fine character and of very considerable interest : as 
the baronial residence of the noble representative of an illustrious family, it retains some of 
the most striking and important of its ancient features, conveying the (at all times pleasant) 
idea, that antiquity is reverenced for its actual worth. 



HE Duke's House, at Bradford, in Wiltshire, is so called from 
the Duke of Kingston, to whom it formerly belonged. It sub- 
sequently descended to Earl Manvers. It is now a dilapidated 
farm-house ; but even in its present condition of neglect, 
approaching ruin, it exhibits interesting indications of its early 
architectural character. In its pristine state, when the whole 
of its ornaments were perfect, it must have presented an appearance peculiarly imposing and 
grand ; for it is seated on the side of a steep hill, with a lofty terrace in front, approached by 
a flight of steps, adorned with balustrades and vases : there were other terraces, walled 
gardens also, and orchards in the rear and on either side of the house, which is built of the 
fine white stone of the district. 

The principal front to the south exhibited in the annexed view, is divided into two 
stories, with attics in the gables. The entire front is, as it were, one window : the three 
projecting bays are crowned with boldly sculptured open balustrades. The effect is remark- 
ably striking and picturesque. The windows have all the mull ions and transoines of stone 
like the rest of the building. The centre bay, on the ground-floor, serves as a porch, and 
has a fine large sculptured doorway, the upper part of which is seen in the print. 

At the time John Aubrey visited Bradford, in 1686, he described this house as inhabited 
by John Hall, a wealthy clothier of the town, connected by marriage with the family of Sir 
John Thynne, of Longleat. Mr. J. Britton supposes that Bradford House was built by the 
architect who erected the grand mansion of Longleat, the foundation of which was laid in 
1567 ; but the style of the building is that of a much later period ; it was probably built by 
the Duke of Kingston. A shield of arms, with what appears to be a ducal coronet above it, 
is over the fireplace in the entrance-hall, and the same shield is repeated in the other 
apartments. This shield, no doubt, belongs to the nobleman who erected the mansion. 


The palace at Longleat is a structure in style almost pure Italian, and the architect is 
well known to be John of Padua, a very celebrated man. It is the fashion with the 
antiquaries in Wilts, so proud they are of the name, to ascribe to him every building and 
every separate fragment of Elizabethan architecture in the county ; but the Duke's House is 
not by him : it is pure English architecture, of the latest and most polished period of the 
style of James I. Aubrey's description of the house is curious ; he calls it " the best house 
for the quality of a gentleman in Wiltshire." The house has two wings ; two, if not three, 
elevations or ascents to it, adorned with terraces, having either rails or stone balustrades. 

The interior contains numerous fragments of 
the old building : the entrance-hall has a noble 
stone fireplace in two stories ; one of the upper 
rooms had, till within the last few years, a very 
handsome oak and stone fireplace, elaborately 
carved. Some of the rooms contain oak panelling ; 
and there are a few ornamented ceilings, in which 
are pomegranates, the fleur-de-lis, English rose, &c. 
The desertion of the house appears to have been 
caused by the increase of the town, which rendered 
it anything but a rural retreat. 

Bradford is situated on the banks of the Avon, 
near the middle of the western boundary of Wilt- 
shire, on the borders of Somersetshire, within a 
cove formed by the surrounding small hills, which 
screen the town from the cold northern winds. 
The Avon here is generally called the Lower Avon, 
and is considerably increased by the waters of the 
Were from Trowbridge. The name is supposed to 
be derived from the Saxon word Bradenford, signifying the broad ford. Over this ford there 
is now a handsome stone bridge. The Duke's House is close to the town, which contains more 
than 10,000 inhabitants, of whom the greater part are employed in the cloth-manufactories. 
The church is a large and ancient building, in the chancel of which is an antique altar-piece, 
coarsely ornamented with a painting that was intended to represent the Last Supper. In the 
church are two windows of painted glass, said to exhibit the actions of Christ and His 
Apostles. These windows were a present from John Ferret, Esq., of London, a native of 
Bradford, who died in 1770- Near the church is a charity-school, for the education of sixty- 
five children, which was opened in January 1712. There is an almshouse at the west end of 
the town, founded by John Hall, Esq., the last of a family which had resided at Bradford 
ever since the reign of Edward I. 



'ITHIN two miles of the ancient town of Droitwich, whose salt-springs 
have been famous since the time of the Romans, stands Westwood House, 
in the centre of an extensive park, well wooded, and consisting of about 
two hundred acres. To the east of the house is a lake extending over 
sixty acres, but which was originally intended to cover one hundred acres 
of ground. The principal front of the house commands a view of this 
lake ; and being situated in the centre of the park, commanding on all 
sides the vistas produced by the fine old trees, whose radiating avenues 
surround it, it is as happily placed as any mansion in the kingdom. 
Nash, in his "History of Worcestershire," thus describes it: "West- 
wood House consists of a square building, from each corner of which 
projects a wing in the form of a parallelogram, and turretted in the style 
of the Chateau de Madrid near Paris, or Holland House. It is 
situated on a rising ground, and encircled with about two hundred acres of oak timber. 
The richness of the wood combining with the stateliness of the edifice forms a picture of 
ancient magnificence, unequalled by any thing in this county." The house is of brick, with 
stone quoins and parapets, and bears a striking resemblance to an old Norman chateau. 
Our plate exhibits the peculiarities of its design as seen in the principal front. The body 
of the house is a solid square of three stories in height, the saloon occupying the first floor, 
and being lighted by large bay-windows. Wings project in a line from the centre of each 
corner of the house, and communicate by doors with each floor of the central building. 
Opposite each wing, at some distance from them, are erected small square towers, which 
were originally connected with the main building by walls, which have now been removed, 



and the small garden surrounding the house entirely thrown open. This garden is encircled 

by an open railing, and im- 
mediately in front of the 
house, and still further in 
advance, is the entrance- 
gate. Our cut exhibits the 
construction of the central 
pile as it appears from the 
garden, with the principal 
front and one side, taking 
in a view of three of the 
wings. The offices and 
stabling are at some short 
distance in the rear of this, 
and where the kitchen-garden now stands originally stood an ancient nunnery, of which 
no remains exist ; but Nash tells us that, in digging, they sometimes find stone coifins 
and foundations of buildings. 

Eustachia de Say and her son Osbert Fitzhugh, having given the church here to the 
abbey of Font-Evraud in Normandy, an abbey closely connected with our Norman kings, and 
where several lie buried, and having, during the reign of Henry II., granted them various 
lands, Osbert is styled the founder of the church of St. Mary at Westwood, in the ancient 
deeds. Shortly afterwards was erected a small priory, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, for 
six nuns of the Benedictine order, which, when once established, shared the usual favours 
bestowed on such foundations during the middle ages ; it ultimately numbered seventeen or 
eighteen inmates. The grants of property, as recited by Nash, do not appear to have been 
of such great value as ever to have given great riches or importance to the priory, but they 
were of a kind to ensure a certain amount of comfort and worldly prosperity to the nuns who 
inhabited it ; and some of the grants are curious, inasmuch as they shew the kindliness of 
feeling with which they were regarded, and the simple usefulness of many donations ; all 
indicative of a period when the necessities of life were more dependent on the interchange of 
individual courtesies than they are at present. Thus, " Jocelyn Fitz Richard, of Wich 
(Droitwich), gave them free passage for corn and hay over the bridge of Brerhulle, as far as 
his meadow extended, from hay-time to Michaelmas, and for wood from hay-time to All 
Saints." Others made them various grants for things in return, which they wanted, and 
which, being of considerably less value, became a profitable quit-rent. Thus " Stephen de 
Elmbrug gave land in Ruinestreet, Droitwich, for one pound of cummin or pepper yearly, at 
Michaelmas ; which was confirmed at his death by his son Inard." Ralph Racket, " a dole 
of salt, with a salt-pit and wood-place, for three shillings and a mit of salt ; Ralph Huson 


confirmed this, and gave an acre in Broadmead, with seven butts adjoining, for a mark of silver 
(13s. 4c?.) ; also six sellions .of land without Guerston Ditch, belonging to their church of St. 
Nicholas, at Wich. Osbert Fit/ Osbert Bende, of Wich, gave lands in Wich, which he held 
in fee of Derhurst, with two helflings (four pounds) and a half of salt at Northernmost Wich, 
for a pair of white gloves yearly to his heirs, and fourpence halfpenny and six baskets of salt." 
Other lands were also held by the same grant of salt from Droitwich, and remittances of rent 
by the same means. The change in the value of money is strikingly visible in some grants ; 
thus, " William Fitz Aldred Fikemore gave 4>d. yearly rent," and " Adam Fitz Adam 
Luveton, of Wich, gave 12</. yearly rent;" sums which now appear almost ludicrous. 

Of the various prioresses of this retired and remote establishment, but few notices or even 
names occur. The only noted one was Isabella, who ruled between 1360 and 1370, and 
died under excommunication, for having joined with the antipope Clement VII. The last 
prioress, Joice Acton, received at the dissolution, in 1553, an annual pension of 10/. At 
this period the revenues were valued at 78/. 85. in the whole, and 175/. 18s. lid. clear, 
which is Dugdale's valuation. 

After the dissolution of religious houses, Westwood with its demesne lands was granted, 
in the thirteenth year of Henry VIII., to Sir John Pakington, knight, in whose descendants 
it still continues. The Pakingtons resided first 
in their mansion at Hampton Lovet ; when 
that was much damaged in the civil wars, they 
enlarged the house at Westwood, which had 
been built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
as a lodge or banquetting-house, and made it 
the place of their abode. 

One of the most interesting features of the 
place is the gate-house immediately in front 
of the mansion ; it consists of a double lodge 
of red brick, with ornamental gables and pin- 
nacles ; the gate in the centre is ornamented 
with the heraldic bearings of the family, the 
mullet or star of five points, and garb or 
wheatsheaf; their arms being, "party per 
chevron, sable and argent, in chief three mul- 
lets, or, in base as many garbs, gules." These 
bearings are again sculptured on the parapets, 
the wheatsheafs doing duty as pilasters, and 
the mullets serving in place of balusters. The 
timber work over the gate, with its high pointed roof and pinnacle,- is exceedingly 



picturesque and striking ; and is all the more interesting from the rarity of such 


Passing through the gate and crossing the small lawn we reach the principal door, to 

which a flight of stone steps 
lead. The stone portico 
is decorated in the style of 
the Renaissance, but is 
more purely Italian in its 
taste than is usually the 
case in works of that pe- 
riod. An open balustrade 
is on each side of the steps. 
Over the centre arch is a 
regal figure on an eagle. 
Tt was probably erected 
after the civil wars, when 
Westwood was enlarged 

and improved. 

From the hall, which is an oblong room, presenting no particular features of interest, and 
from which the library, containing many choice and curious volumes, is reached, and which 
is situated in the wing to the left, the principal apartments 
are reached by the staircase, a view of which is here given, 
and which is chiefly remarkable for the Corinthian capitals, 
supporting globes, which are placed on the banister. The 
whole of this staircase is of carved oak, in a fine state of 
preservation, and exhibiting great finish in execution. By 
this stair we reach the saloon, a noble apartment, with a 
double bay-window situated immediately over the hall, and 
having its walls hung with fine old tapestry of the Elizabethan 
era, filled with symbolical representations of various kinds, 
and resembling, in style and character, that exhibited in the 
great hall at Hampton Court. A magnificent fireplace of 
elaborate detail, decorated with the royal arms, is in the 
centre. The roof is of plaster, but is not the original one ; it is very florid and elaborate, 
in the style of Louis Quatorze, yet, however good as a specimen of that peculiar taste, it 
does not harmonise with the rest of the building. 

From the windows of this room a noble view of the country is obtained, which is very 
undulatory and beautiful ; the lake, the avenues, and the antique oaks which surround the 


house, also add to the beauty of the prospect. The effect of the pavilion opposite each wing 
of the building is here seen to good effect, surrounded as they generally are with trees and 
flowers. We engrave one of them. The chimney upon its exterior bracket is a peculiar 
feature in their design. 

Among the portraits preserved in the mansion may be noticed particularly a curious 
one of Sir John Perrott, Knight of the Bath, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1583 
to 1588, who was descended from a very ancient family in Pembrokeshire ; his mother 
was Mary, daughter of James Berkeley, Esq., second son of Lord Berkeley. Sir Robert 
Naunton, in his " Fragmenta Regalia," intimates that he was a natural son of Henry VIII. 
" If we compare," says he, " his picture, his qualities, gesture, and voice, with those of the 
king, which memory retains yet amongst us, they will plead strongly that he was a 
surreptitious child of the blood-royal." His first appearance at court was early in the 
reign of Edward VI. He was arraigned of high treason at Westminster, April 17, 1592, 
and received sentence of death ; but did not suffer, for he died five months after in the 
Tower. He left one son, Sir Thomas Perrot, knight, who married Dorothy, sister to the 
favourite Earl of Essex, by whom he had one or more daughters. Sir Thomas dying early, 
his widow married Henry Percy, the ninth Earl of Northumberland, and his estate came 
afterwards by marriage to the Pakingtons. 

Sir John Pakynton, knight, son of the first grantee, was sheriff of this county in the 
reign of Elizabeth, and a favourite with that queen, who first took notice of him in her 
progress to Worcester ; he followed her to court, and was made a Knight of the Bath. On 
one occasion he betted with three courtiers, for 3000/., to swim against them from 
Westminster to Greenwich, but the queen, by her especial command, prevented it. His 
only court favour on record was a monopoly of starch. Fuller says of him, that, " being 
a fine but no assiduous courtier, he drew the curtain between himself and the light of the 
queen's favour, and then death overwhelmed the remnant, and utterly deprived him of 
recovery ; and they say of him, that had he brought less to the court than he did, he might 
have carried away more than he brought, for he had a time of it, but was no good husband of 
opportunity." He died of gout at the age of seventy-seven, and was buried at Aylesbury, 1625. 

Sir John Pakyngton, Bart., knight of the shire 15 Charles I., was a confirmed loyalist, 
and was tried for his life by the Parliament, his estates were sequestered, and he was 
plundered for his loyalty, but he ultimately compounded with the parliamentary committee 
for 5000/., and died in 1679. His house was an asylum for all learned men in these 
troublesome times. Nash says, " Dr. Hammond, Bishops Morley, Fell, Gunning, and 
others, always met with hospitable entertainment here, during the troubles of the kingdom. 
In concert with some of these, Dorothy, "the good Lady Pakington" as she was called, is 
supposed to have written " The Whole Duty of Man," one of the most popular of religious 
volumes. In defence of her supposed authorship, it is said that Lady Pakington's letters 


and prayers are marked with the easy familiar language of that book ; and it has been 
asserted that the original MS. in the handwriting of this lady, and interlined with 
corrections by Bishop Fell, was sometime in possession of her daughter, Mrs. Ayre, of 
Rampton, who often affirmed it to be the performance of her mother, adding that she was 
also the authoress of the " Decay of Christian Piety," another celebrated religious work. 
But " upon the whole," adds Nash, " it still remains a doubt, and it is much easier to prove 
who was not the author than to assert who was." 

At the Revolution, the doors of Westwood were open to some persons who scrupled to 
take oaths to King William. Dean Hickes wrote here great part of his " Linguarum 
Septentrionalium Thesaurus;" and the preface to his " Grammatica Anglo-Sax onica" is 
dedicated to Sir John Pakington. In it he gives the following declamatory description of 
Westwood, " Ibi porticus, atria, propylsea, horti, ambulacra clausa et subdialia, recta et 
sinuosa, omnia studiis commoda ; ibi luci, silvse, nemora, prata, saltus, planities, pascua, 
et nihil non, quod animum pene a literis abhorrentem et legendum, audiendumve, et 
quovismodo discendum componere, et conciliare potest." 




CONTAINS HALL is situated about five miles west of Ripon, in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, and " within two hundred yards " of the 
famous Abbey, the name of which it "borrowed," as well as the 
stones of which it is built. The hall was, indeed, formed out of 
the ruins of the time-honoured structure ; and Sir Stephen Proctor, by whom 
it was erected, thought, no doubt, he was dedicating to "right uses" the 
precious relics he had bought, which supplied him with a "quarry" 
plentiful and easy of access. It has since passed through various hands ; 
the descendants of the builder held it but a short while : the daughter of 
Sir Stephen conveyed it, with the manor, to John Messenger, Esq., whose 
descendant sold it to William Aislabie, Esq. ; recently it was the property of 
the late Miss Lawrence of Studley-Royal ; and now, we believe, belongs to the Earl de Grey. 
Farther than this, little is known of the man- 
sion or its history ; and its interest is derived 
principally, or solely, from the ruined structure 
magnificent and beautiful in decay which 
it adjoins, and out of the broken columns of 
which it was raised. 

Fountains Abbey* ranks among the most 
picturesque and interesting of the monastic 
ruins of England. It was founded early in the twelfth century for monks of the Cistercian 

* " The reason why the name of Fountains was given to 
this Abbey is a matter of some doubt. It is not an improbable 
conjecture that the monks might think it conducive to their 
honour, and that of their house, to give it the appellation of 
the place where their founder, St. Bernard, drew his first 
breath Fountaines in Burgundy. This opinion is also cor- 
roborated by the consideration that no remarkable springs 
break out on this spot which could have given rise to the 


appellation. But the learned and ingenious historian of 
Craven, Whitaker, has given another derivation of the word. 
Skell, the rivulet that washes its walls, signifies a fountain ; 
and he observes that the first name assigned to this house 
was the Abbey of Skeldale ; but the monks, who always 
wrote ill Latin, translated it 'De Fontibus;' and afterwards, 
when the original name was forgotten, it was translated 
' Fountains.' " 


Order; the locality being then an "uncouth desert," which supplied no better shelter than 
"seven yew-trees," under which the monks made their habitation while their magnificent 
house was progressing. Yet, long after the stupendous structure was deserted and unroofed, 
their first dwelling continued in existence ; for, so late as the year 1810, six of the seven 
trees were flourishing above the ground where the builders had congregated, and formed their 
projects for a great future. In process of time the abbey became richly endowed : such was 
its repute for sanctity, that princes and nobles "purchased with immense donations" the 

right of sepulture within its walls ; 
the most illustrious of the northern 
families were among its benefactors. 
" Popes and kings seemed to emulate 
one another in granting to the monks 
privileges and immunities ; " its pos- 
sessions "stretched from the foot of 
Pinnigant to the boundaries of St. 
Wilfred of Ripon, without inter- 
ruption." Fountains-fell still retains 
the name of its ancient possessors ; 
" all the high pastures from thence to Kilnsey were ranged by their flocks and herds ; " and 
" their lands in Craven " amounted to sixty-four thousand acres. At the dissolution, its 
revenues exceeded a thousand pounds per annum ; its site, with the estates thereunto 
belonging, were sold by the sovereign spoiler to Sir Richard Gresham, who resold them 
to Sir Stephen Proctor (the builder of the Hall out of the Abbey stones); and the 
Abbey became a ruin of deep interest to the antiquary, the artist, and the lover of the 








ELMSLEY HALL is situate about six miles from Kirby-Moorside, in 
the North Riding of Yorkshire. The date is early in the seventeenth 
century ; but it occupies the site, and is, indeed, chiefly built from the 
relics of a structure of far more remote antiquity. The manor is in 
Domesday called Elmeslae, "from elm, and slae, a narrow vale," and 
was given by the Conqueror to the Earl of Morton. Not long after 
the Conquest it became the property of Sir Walter de la Espee, from 
whom it passed to the noble family of Ross or Roos, and from them to the Earls of Rutland. 
Catherine, daughter of the sixth earl, married George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, to 
whom was thus transferred the estate, which the second Duke wasted by a career of profligacy 
and vice.* From his trustees, Helmsley was purchased by Sir Charles Duncombe, from whom 
it has descended to the present Lord Feversham. 

Helmsley Castle, once a place of formidable strength, was built about the year 1200 by 
one of the family of Ross one who, it is said, forfeited by rebellion during the reign of 
Richard I., but regained his estates by favour of Richard's successor, the infamous John. 
The remains are still imposing, and give indications of having formerly covered immense 
space. They are thus described by the Rev. W. Eastmead : " The grand entrance on the 
south has been very strong. Without the outer wall is a ditch, which has added to the strength 
of the fortification ; then the gateway leading into the first court or ballium, which measures 

* George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, died at a small 
inn at Kirby-Moorside, on the 15th April, 1687. He was 
buried in the churchyard, but the precise spot is unknown. 
The following is a literal extract from the register which 
records his burial : 

" 1687, April 17. Gorges vilaus Lord dooke of bookingam." 

lie must have gone to the grave unattended except by the 
parish officials. The Earl of Arran accidentally passing by 
the inn while he was dying, gave, indeed, directions to see 
him " decently interred." But the memory of his grave has 
faded ; there is not only no stone to preserve his name, but 
even tradition cannot point out the spot upon which to place 

it, so that his ashes may be covered by a poor monument. 
The reader will recall the famous lines of Pope : 

"In the worst inn's worst room," &c. 

The room is still shewn to the curious ; it is a small and 
poor chamber, not the "worst" in the house, although a 
strange contrast to the princely halls the licentious duke had 
so long inhabited : 

" No wit to flatter left of all his store, 
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more ; 
There, victor of his health, his fortune, friends, 
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends." 


twenty feet in thickness. After that a second gateway, leading to the inner court, where 
were the lodgings, &c. ; and then the keep, ninety-five feet high, under which was the 
dungeon : and these walls were defended by a number of towers, which were strong and 
magnificent. The walls of this castle were extremely well built, and the vast masses of them 
which were thrown down yet hang together with amazing firmness. Besides the south gate 
the remains of two others are yet visible, one on the north and another on the west ; and it is 
said that the waters of the Rye were conducted through the ditches which surround the 
building. During the Civil Wars the castle, after a severe conflict, was taken by the Parlia- 
ment forces under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, who, during the siege, was wounded 
in the shoulder. It was soon afterwards dismantled by order of Parliament." 

The Hall, as we have intimated, was built out of parts of the ancient castle. The apart- 
ment pictured by Mr. Richardson is the principal drawing-room, but the house has ceased 
to be inhabited by any member of the family to whom it belongs ; it is, nevertheless, a 
good subject for the artist, and one which he is bound to rescue from the grasp of time. 

This "state chamber" is approached by stone steps from the courtyard ; several smaller 
apartments are contiguous to it, but are without decorations, unless their ample bay-windows 
may be so called. A lofty tower at the south-east angle has been divided into several stories, 
but the stairs and various floors are gone. Helmsley Hall is rapidly decaying, and will 
be ere long, like its far more powerful parent and neighbour " the Castle," but a relic of the 
past ; it will, however, always possess considerable interest. Here revelled the licentious 

" That life of pleasure and that soul of whim ! " 

And these now lonely walls suggest many a thought to connect the surrounding scenery with 
the brilliant career of the most famous of Helmsley's lords.